On Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article

Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article often take more than one form. In the overview below, not all variations are given; the contractions presented have been selected based on their appearance in Bibie par un popul. For instance, the preposition a + definite article la may become either a la or ae, but ae is not included below for it is not employed in the Bible.

That said, variations will be encountered even within the Bible itself, and not all of them are presented here. An overview of all variations requires a separate entry. By using the information below as a starting point, the reader will be able to make sense of variations as he encounters them on his own.

For each of the four gender-number possibilities (masculine singular, masculine plural, feminine singular, feminine plural), the reader will find examples below of the contractions used with two different nouns: the first of the pair begins with a consonant, and the second begins with a vowel.


masculine feminine
singular il; l’ la; l’
plural i lis

Examples: masculine singular il cîl; l’arbul; masculine plural i cîi; i arbui; feminine singular la tiere; l’aghe; feminine plural lis tieris; lis aghis.


1. a + definite article
(unto the)

masculine feminine
singular al a la; a l’
plural ai a lis

Examples: masculine singular al scûr; al om; masculine plural ai fîs; ai ucei; feminine singular a la lûs; a l’opare; feminine plural a lis bestiis; a lis isulis.

2. cun + definite article
(with the)

masculine feminine
singular cul cu la; cu l’
plural cui cu lis

Examples: masculine singular cul spirt; cul ucel; masculine plural cui cjans; cui agns; feminine singular cu la cueste; cu l’aghe; feminine plural cu lis mans; cu lis alis.

3. di + definite article
(from the, of the)

masculine feminine
singular dal de; da l’
plural dai des

Examples: masculine singular dal cîl; dal om; masculine plural dai flums; dai altârs; feminine singular de tiere; da l’arcje; feminine plural des vitoriis; des isulis.

4a. in + definite article
(in the)

First variation

masculine feminine
singular tal te; ta l’
plural tai tes

Examples: masculine singular tal mieç; tal amôr; masculine plural tai timps; tai agns; feminine singular te volte; ta l’aghe; feminine plural tes busis; tes orelis.

4b. in + definite article
(in the)

Second variation

masculine feminine
singular intal inte; inta l’
plural intai intes

Examples: masculine singular intal paîs; masculine plural intai cjamps; feminine singular inte tiere; feminine plural intes busis.

5. par + definite article
(for the)

masculine feminine
singular pal pe; pa l’
plural pai pes

Examples: masculine singular pal vignadiç; pal om; masculine plural pai fîs; pai oms; feminine singular pe tribù; pa l’aghe; feminine plural pes blestemis; pes aghis.

6. su + definite article
(on the)

masculine feminine
singular sul su la; su l’
plural sui su lis

Examples: masculine singular sul cjâf; sul altâr; masculine plural sui confins; sui arbui; feminine singular su la tiere; su l’arie; feminine plural su lis cjasis; su lis alis.