Genesis 2 in Friulian – Il paradîs dal Eden

The second chapter of the book of Genesis tells of the garden of Eden. The Friulian text of the verses of this chapter is drawn from Bibie par un popul, made available by Glesie Furlane.

Verse 1

Cussì a son stâts metûts a puest il cîl e la tiere cun dutis lis lôr schiriis.

Cussì a son stâts metûts a puest (so were put into place) il cîl e la tiere (the heaven and the earth) cun dutis lis lôr schiriis (with all their arrays).

Vocabulary: cussì (so), meti (to put), il puest (place), meti a puest (to put into place), il cîl (heaven), la tiere (earth), cun (with), dut (all), la schirie (array).

Cussì a son stâts metûts a puest il cîl e la tiere: so were put into place the heaven and the earth. The verb meti means to put; its past participle is metût. Observe: jessi (to be); a son (they are); a son stâts (they were); a son stâts metûts (they were put); a son stâts metûts a puest (they were put into place).

A son stâts is the third-person plural of the passât prossim of the verb jessi, where stât is the past participle of this verb: al è stât (he was; he has been); a son stâts (they were; they have been). For the passât prossim has been formed here with the auxiliary jessi, the past participle stât must then agree in gender and number with its subject. (Some verbs take as their auxiliary in the passât prossim; others take the verb jessi.) Consider the following: al à metût (he put; he has put); a àn metût (they put; they have put); o soi stât (I was; I have been); al è stât (he was; he has been); a son stâts (they were; they have been); e à metût (she put; she has put); e je stade (she was; she has been).

In the text of this verse, we find a son stâts metûts, meaning they were put into place. In this passive construction, metût must also agree in gender and number with its subject. Observe: al à metût (he put; he has put); al è stât metût (he was put; he has been put); e à metût (she put; she has put); e je stade metude (she was put; she has been put); a àn metût (they put; they have put); a son stâts metûts (they were put; they have been put [masculine plural]); a son stadis metudis (they were put; they have been put [feminine plural]).

From the text of this verse, a son stâts metûts agrees in gender and number with il cîl e la tiere. For one masculine noun (il cîl) and one feminine noun (la tiere) are present, the agreement is then made with the masculine plural. Were two masculine nouns present, the agreement would also be made with the masculine plural. Were two feminine nouns present, the agreement would be made with the feminine plural; for instance: l’aghe e la tiere a son stadis metudis (the water and the earth were put; the water and the earth have been put).

Schiriis is the plural of the feminine schirie.

Verse 2

Diu al finì la sô vore te setime zornade e te setime zornade al polsà di dute la vore che al veve fate.

Diu al finì la sô vore (God finished his work) te setime zornade (in the seventh day) e te setime zornade (and in the seventh day) al polsà di dute la vore che al veve fate (did he rest from all the work which he had done).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), finî (to finish), la vore (work), setim (seventh), la zornade (day), polsâ (to rest), (to do).

Te setime zornade: in the seventh day. Te is the contraction of in + la (in + the): te (in the) setime (seventh) zornade (day).

In che al veve fate, the past participle fat has taken its feminine singular form fate to agree with the feminine singular vore. Consider the following: il cîl che al veve fat (the heaven which he had made); la vore che al veve fate (the work which he had done).

The Friulian for seventh is setim (masculine); setime (feminine). Observe these feminine forms (first to seventh): la prime zornade; la seconde zornade; la tierce zornade; la cuarte zornade; la cuinte zornade; la seste zornade; la setime zornade. Now the masculine: il prin libri; il secont libri; il tierç libri; il cuart libri; il cuint libri; il sest libri; il setim libri. (The masculine libri means book.)

Verse 3

Diu al benedì la setime zornade e le fasè sante, parcè che al veve polsât di dute la vore de creazion.

Diu al benedì la setime zornade (God blessed the seventh day) e le fasè sante (and made it holy), parcè che al veve polsât (for he had rested) di dute la vore de creazion (from all the work of creation).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), benedî (to bless), setim (seventh), la zornade (day), sant (holy), fâ sant (to make holy), parcè che (for), polsâ di (to rest from), dut (all), la vore (work), la creazion (creation).

The adjective sant means holy; its four forms are sant (masculine singular); sants (masculine plural); sante (feminine singular); santis (feminine plural). In le fasè sante (he made it holy), le (it) is put for the feminine zornade, and sant takes its feminine singular form sante to agree therewith. Le is the feminine equivalent of lu, already encountered: {Diu} lu creà sul stamp di Diu, from the first chapter of the book of Genesis. The reader has also seen the plural ju: {Diu} ju creà mascjo e femine.

In the presence of lu, le and ju, the atonic pronouns al, e and a are not expressed. Consider: Diu al creà; Diu lu creà (God created; God created it/him); Diu al fasè; Diu le fasè (God made; God made it/her); Diu al creà; Diu ju creà (God created; God created them).

De creazion: literally, of the creation; de is the contraction of di + la (of + the).

Consider the following: al fasè (he made); al à fat (he made; he has made); al veve fat (he had made). Consider also: al polsà (he rested); al à polsât (he rested; he has rested); al veve polsât (he had rested).

Verse 4

E je cheste la storie dal cîl e de tiere, cuant che a forin creâts. Cuant che il Signôr Diu al fasè la tiere e il cîl,

E je cheste (it is this) la storie dal cîl e de tiere (the story of the heaven and the earth), cuant che a forin creâts (when they were created). Cuant che il Signôr Diu al fasè la tiere e il cîl (when the Lord God made the earth and the heaven),

Vocabulary: chest (this), la storie (story), il cîl (heaven), la tiere (earth), cuant che (when), creâ (to create), il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), (to make).

E je cheste la storie: it is this the story. Chest means this; its feminine form is cheste. Consider: al è chest (it is this); e je cheste (it is this). Review the four forms taken by chest: chest (masculine singular); cheste (feminine singular); chescj (masculine plural); chestis (feminine plural). The following examples use the masculine nouns libri and ream, and the feminine nouns peraule and robe: chest libri (this book); chescj reams (these kingdoms); cheste peraule (this word); chestis robis (these matters).

Cuant che a forin creâts: when they were created. Friulian may express he created using either the passât sempliç (which gives al creà) or the passât prossim (which gives al à creât). To say it was, these same two tenses may be used: al fo or al è stât. In similar fashion, the passive it was created may be expressed in two manners: al fo creât; al è stât creât. As for the plural they were, so may this be expressed: a forin; a son stâts. The passive they were created may be expressed thus: a forin creâts; a son stâts creâts. The passât sempliç is especially a literary form, with common usage preferring the passât prossim.

Verse 5

nol jere ancjemò nissun sterp su la tiere e no veve ancjemò dât fûr nissune sorte di jerbe, parcè che il Signôr Diu nol veve fat plovi su la tiere e nol jere om che al lavoràs la tiere,

nol jere ancjemò nissun sterp su la tiere (there was not yet any shrub on the earth) e no veve ancjemò dât fûr nissune sorte di jerbe (and it had not yet given forth any sort of grass), parcè che il Signôr Diu nol veve fat plovi su la tiere (for the Lord God had not made to rain upon the earth) e nol jere om che al lavoràs la tiere (and there was not man who might work the earth),

Vocabulary: nol jere (there was not), ancjemò (yet), nissun (not any), il sterp (shrub), la tiere (earth), (to give), dâ fûr (to give forth), la sorte (sort), la jerbe (grass), parcè che (for), (to make), plovi (to rain), un om (man), lavorâ (to work).

Nol jere ancjemò nissun sterp: there was not yet any shrub. Nol jere is read here as there was not; its present-time equivalent is nol è. Of nissun, a number of supplementary examples: nissune pôre (not any fear); nissun libri (not any book); nissun fûc (not any fire); nissune femine (not any woman). Nissune is the feminine form of nissun.

E no veve ancjemò dât fûr nissune sorte di jerbe: and it had not yet given forth any sort of grass. No veve is a feminine form which may only refer in this context to the feminine tiere. Consider: il Signôr Diu nol veve dât fûr (the Lord God had not given forth); la tiere no veve dât fûr (the earth had not given forth). The masculine form employs nol, whereas the feminine employs no.

Il Signôr Diu nol veve fat plovi: the Lord God had not made to rain. The masculine nol veve fat (had not made) is employed here to agree with its masculine subject il Signôr Diu; had the subject been feminine, it would have read no veve fat. Plovi means to rain; fâ plovi means to make to rain, which is to say, to cause to rain.

Nol jere om che al lavoràs la tiere: there was not man who might work the earth. The verb lavorâ means to work. Al lavoràs is encountered in the text of this verse, which is the masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet.

Verse 6

che al fasès vignî fûr aghe de tiere e che al bagnàs il teren dulintor.

che al fasès vignî fûr aghe de tiere (who might make water come forth from the earth) e che al bagnàs il teren dulintor (and who might wet the ground all round).

Vocabulary: fâ vignî fûr (to make come forth), la aghe (water), la tiere (earth), bagnâ (to wet), il teren (ground), dulintor (all round).

In addition to al lavoràs at verse 5, more masculine forms of the third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet are encountered in the text of this current verse with al fasès and al bagnàs.

Verse 7

Alore il Signôr Diu al fasè il stamp dal om cu l’argile, i soflà tes busis dal nâs une soflade di vite e l’om al deventà une creature vivent.

Alore il Signôr Diu (then the Lord God) al fasè il stamp dal om cu l’argile (made the form of man with clay), i soflà tes busis dal nâs une soflade di vite (blew into the holes of his nose a breath of life) e l’om al deventà une creature vivent (and man became a living creature).

Vocabulary: alore (then), il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), (to make), il stamp (form), fâ il stamp di (to make the form of), un om (man), l’argile (clay), soflà (to blow), la buse (hole), il nâs (nose), la soflade (breath), la vite (life), deventâ (to become), la creature (creature), vivent (living).

The Lord God made the form of man with clay – al fasè il stamp dal om cu l’argile, which is to say that he formed him from clay.

I soflà tes busis dal nâs, after the Friulian manner, translates as unto him did he blow into the holes of the nose: i (unto him) soflà (did he blow; he blew) tes busis (into the holes) dal nâs (of the nose), which is to say, he blew into the holes of his nose, the holes of the nose being the nostrils. In (in; into) combines with lis (the; feminine plural) to form tes (in the; into the; feminine plural): in + lis busis = tes busis (into the holes). A nostril is also called une narile in Friulian.

L’argile is a feminine noun meaning clay; when cun (with) comes into contact with a feminine noun using the definite article l’, it becomes cu l’, as in cu l’argile. Cu l’argile means with clay; literally, with the clay.

Verse 8

Podopo il Signôr Diu al plantà un zardin tal Eden, de bande di soreli jevât, e li al metè l’om che al veve fat.

Podopo il Signôr Diu (thereupon the Lord God) al plantà un zardin tal Eden (planted a garden in Eden), de bande di soreli jevât (eastwards), e li al metè l’om che al veve fat (and there did he put the man whom he had made).

Vocabulary: podopo (thereupon), il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), plantâ (to plant), il zardin (garden), la bande (side), de bande di (-wards), il soreli (sun), jevâ (to arise), jevât (arisen), soreli jevât (east), li (there), meti (to put), un om (man), (to make).

The four cardinal points in Friulian are: nord, sud, est, ovest (north, south, east, west). In the text of this verse, the reader encounters not est but soreli jevât, also meaning east. The Friulian for sun is il soreli; as for jevât (arisen), this is the past participle of the verb jevâ, meaning to arise. The opposite of soreli jevât is soreli bonât (west), where bonât is the past participle of the verb bonâ, meaning to set.

Of nord, sud, est, ovest, a number of supplementary examples: lâ a nord (to go north); a est il cîl al è nulât (unto the east the sky is cloudy); viazâ bande est (to travel eastwards); une perturbazion di ovest (a disturbance from the west); la cueste sud de mont (the south side of the mountain). In the foregoing examples, the definite article is not employed with the cardinal points, for they refer to general directions; however, in the examples which follow, the definite article is employed, for the cardinal points are used as nouns referring to defined geographic areas: il nord dal Friûl (the north of Friuli); un paîs dal est (a country of the east); il Portugal al è tal ovest de Europe (Portugal is in the west of Europe). Northern Italy and Southern Italy may be referred to as il Nord Italie and il Sud Italie: i problemis dal Nord Italie (the problems of Northern Italy); l’emigrazion dal Sud Italie (the emigration from Southern Italy).

Of soreli jevât, two more examples: la puarte e cjale a soreli jevât (the door looks unto the east); la Slovenie e je a soreli jevât dal Friûl (Slovenia is unto the east of Friuli). Another instance of soreli jevât is encountered at verse 14.

Verse 9

Il Signôr Diu al fasè butâ fûr de tiere ogni sorte di arbui, che a jerin un spetacul dome a viodiju e bogns di mangjâ, e l’arbul de vite tal mieç dal zardin, e l’arbul de cognossince dal ben e dal mâl.

Il Signôr Diu al fasè butâ fûr de tiere (the Lord God made to cast forth from the earth) ogni sorte di arbui (every sort of trees), che a jerin un spetacul dome a viodiju (which were a sight but to behold) e bogns di mangjâ (and good to eat), e l’arbul de vite tal mieç dal zardin (and the tree of life in the midst of the garden), e l’arbul de cognossince dal ben e dal mâl (and the tree of the knowledge of good and bad).

Vocabulary: il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), butâ fûr (to cast forth), fâ butâ fûr (to make to cast forth), la tiere (earth), ogni (every), la sorte (sort), un arbul (tree), il spetacul (sight), dome (but), viodi (to behold), bon (good), bogns (good; masculine plural), mangjâ (to eat), la vite (life), l’arbul de vite (the tree of life), il mieç (midst), tal mieç (in the midst), il zardin (garden), la cognossince (knowledge), il ben (good), il mâl (bad), l’arbul de cognossince dal ben e dal mâl (the tree of the knowledge of good and bad).

The Friulian for tree is the masculine arbul; its plural form is arbui. This is not the first instance where a masculine noun ending in a vowel + l is seen to form its plural with i rather than s; the reader has also encountered il nemâl, i nemâi.

Che a jerin un spetacul dome a viodiju: which were a sight but to behold; literally, that they were a sight but to behold them. The verb viodi means to see, to behold; viodiju translates literally as to see them; to behold them. The addition here of ju (them) to viodi is a feature of Friulian which need not be transferred over into the English, for English resolves this by way of the use of which.

The reader has already met with al jere, meaning it was (or he was); this is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb jessi. Its third-person plural equivalent is a jerin (they were), which we find in the text of this verse. Consider the following: al è un spectacul; a son un spetacul (it is a sight; they are a sight); al jere un spetacul; a jerin un spetacul (it was a sight; they were a sight).

The adjective bon means good; its four forms are: bon (masculine singular); buine (feminine singular); bogns (masculine plural); buinis (feminine plural). In the text of this verse, we encounter bogns di mangjâ (good to eat), where bogns agrees in number and gender with arbui. Following is another example, this time employing the feminine pome (fruit): pomis buinis di mangjâ (good fruits to eat; fruits {which are} good to eat).

L’arbul de vite tal mieç dal zardin: the tree of life in the midst of the garden. Tal is the contraction of in + il (in + the). Consider: l’arbul (the tree) de (of the) vite (life) tal (in the) mieç (midst) dal (of the) zardin (garden).

L’arbul de cognossince dal ben e dal mâl: the tree of the knowledge of good and bad. Il ben is that which is good; il mâl is that which is bad. Cognossince is a feminine noun; this is made clear by the use of de before it, which is the contraction of di + la (of + the). Consider: l’arbul (the tree) de (of the) cognossince (knowledge) dal (of the) ben (good) e (and) dal (of the) mâl (bad).

Verse 10

Dal Eden al saltave fûr un flum par bagnâ il zardin e di li si divideve par formâ cuatri braçs.

Dal Eden al saltave fûr un flum par bagnâ il zardin (from Eden would a river come forth to wet the garden) e di li si divideve par formâ cuatri braçs (and thence would divide itself to form four branches).

Vocabulary: saltâ fûr (to come forth), il flum (river), bagnâ (to wet), il zardin (garden), di li (thence), dividisi (to divide oneself), formâ (to form), cuatri (four), il braç (branch).

Saltâ fûr (to come forth) is found here in its masculine, third-person singular form of the imperfet indicatîf, which is to say, al saltave fûr (it was coming forth; it would come forth). Another example of the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf is found with si divideve, from the reflexive dividisi. The verb dividi means to divide {something}; the reflexive dividisi means to divide oneself. The atonic al is not expressed in the presence of si; consider the following: Diu al divideve il flum (God was dividing the river; God would divide the river); il flum si divideve (the river was dividing itself; the river would divide itself).

Verse 11

Il prin al à non Pison: al gire torator de tiere di Avile, là che al è aur;

Il prin al à non Pison (the first has for name Pishon): al gire torator de tiere di Avile (it turns round about the land of Havilah), là che al è aur (where there is gold);

Vocabulary: prin (first), il non (name), girâ torator (to turn round about), la tiere (land), là che (where), l’aur (gold).

Il prin (the first) is to be understood as meaning il prin flum (the first river). This first river had for name Pison; the Friulian vê non (literally, to have name) is to be understood as meaning to have for name.

Verse 12

l’aur di chest paîs al è rût e si cjate ancje pês ch’e nûl bon e piere di onice.

l’aur di chest paîs al è rût (the gold of this country is pure) e si cjate ancje pês ch’e nûl bon (and resin which smells good is also found there) e piere di onice (and onyx stone).

Vocabulary: l’aur (gold), chest (this), il paîs (country), rût (pure), cjatâsi (to be found), ancje (also), la pês (resin), nulî bon (to smell good), la piere (stone), l’onice (onyx).

Verse 13

Il secont flum al à non Ghicon: al gire dulintor de tiere di Kus.

Il secont flum al à non Ghicon (the second river has for name Gihon): al gire dulintor de tiere di Kus (it turns all round the land of Cush).

Vocabulary: secont (second), il flum (river), (to have), il non (name), girâ dulintor (to turn all round), la tiere (land).

The reader may wish to review ordinal numerals from first to seventh: prin, secont, tierç, cuart, cuint, sest, setim. Their feminine forms are: prime, seconde, tierce, cuarte, cuinte, seste, setime.

Verse 14

Il tierç flum al à non Tigri: al scor a soreli jevât di Assur. Il cuart flum al è l’Eufrât.

Il tierç flum al à non Tigri (the third river has for name Tigris): al scor a soreli jevât di Assur (it flows unto the east of Asshur). Il cuart flum al è l’Eufrât (the fourth river is the Euphrates).

Vocabulary: tierç (third), il flum (river), (to have), il non (name), scori (to flow), a soreli jevât (unto the east), cuart (fourth).

Verse 15

Il Signôr Diu al cjapà l’om e lu sistemà tal zardin dal Eden par che lu lavoràs e che al fasès di vuardian.

Il Signôr Diu al cjapà l’om (the Lord God took the man) e lu sistemà tal zardin dal Eden (and installed him in the garden of Eden) par che lu lavoràs (that he might work it) e che al fasès di vuardian (and might act as guardian).

Vocabulary: il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), cjapâ (to take), un om (man), sistemâ (to install), il zardin (garden), lavorâ (to work), il vuardian (guardian), fâ di vuardian (to act as guardian).

The reader once again encounters (see also verses 5 and 6) the masculine, third-person singular coniuntîf imperfet forms al fasès and al lavoràs, this time following the use of par che ({in order} that).

Verse 16

E il Signôr Diu al precetà l’om cussì: “Tu puedis mangjâ di ducj i arbui dal zardin.

E il Signôr Diu al precetà l’om cussì (and the Lord God enjoined the man so): “Tu puedis mangjâ di ducj i arbui dal zardin (thou mayest eat of all the trees of the garden).

Vocabulary: il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), precetâ (to enjoin), un om (man), cussì (so), podê (may), mangjâ (to eat), dut (all), un arbul (tree), il zardin (garden).

Podê means may, can, to be able. Consider: tu tu puedis (thou mayest; thou canst; thou art able); tu tu puedis fâ (thou mayest do; thou canst do; thou art able to do). In the way that, for instance, lui al è may be expressed simply as al è, so too may tu tu puedis be expressed simply as tu puedis. In tu tu puedis, the tonic tu (the first one) is optional, but the atonic tu (the second one) is mandatory.

Verse 17

Ma l’arbul de cognossince dal ben e dal mâl no tu âs di mangjânt parcè che la dì che tu ’nt mangjarâs, tu murarâs!”.

Ma l’arbul (but the tree) de cognossince (of the knowledge) dal ben e dal mâl (of good and bad) no tu âs di mangjânt (art thou not to eat thereof) parcè che la dì che tu ’nt mangjarâs (for the day when thou wilt eat thereof), tu murarâs!” (thou shalt die).

Vocabulary: ma (but), un arbul (tree), la cognossince (knowledge), il ben (good), il mâl (bad), vê di (to have to), mangjâ (to eat), mangjânt (to eat thereof), parcè che (for), la dì (day), murî (to die).

Vê di translates literally as to have to, but it may rendered variously in English. Consider: al à di mangjâ (he has to eat; he must eat; he is to eat); tu âs di mangjâ (thou hast to eat; thou must eat; thou art to eat); nol à di mangjâ (he has not to eat; he must not eat; he is not to eat); no tu âs di mangjâ (thou hast not to eat; thou must not eat; thou art not to eat).

In the text of this verse, encountered is no tu âs di mangjânt; the nt ending of mangjânt means thereof, or of it. No tu âs di mangjânt, then, means thou art not to eat thereof. In parcè che la dì che tu ’nt mangjarâs, the ’nt also means thereof: parcè che (for) la dì che (the day when) tu ’nt mangjarâs (thou wilt eat thereof). The reader will that ’nt is placed before the conjugated verb, but attached to the end of the infinitive: tu ’nt mangjarâs; mangjânt.

Tu mangjarâs is the second-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb mangjâ. Tu murarâs is the same of the verb murî.

(day) will be found expressed in Friulian as both a masculine and feminine noun. For instance, the first day may be expressed as il prin dì, la prime dì or even la prime zornade, but is ever masculine with cardinal numerals: trê dîs di viaç (three days’ journey); dopo chei cinc dîs (after those five days). The plural form is dîs, in both the masculine and feminine.

Verse 18

Il Signôr Diu al disè: “Nol è ben che l’om al sedi dibessôl. Mi tocje dâi un jutori che al sedi il so spieli”.

Il Signôr Diu al disè (the Lord God said): “Nol è ben (it is not good) che l’om al sedi dibessôl (that the man should be on his own). Mi tocje dâi un jutori (I must give him a helper) che al sedi il so spieli” (who may be his counterpart).

Vocabulary: il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), (to say), nol è ben (it is not good), un om (man), dibessôl (on one’s own), tocjâi a (must), (to give), dâi (to give unto him), il jutori (helper), il spieli (counterpart).

Nol è ben che l’om al sedi dibessôl: it is not good that the man should be on his own. Al sedi is the masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of the verb jessi. Consider: l’om al è dibessôl (the man is on his own); nol è ben che l’om al sedi dibessôl (it is not good that the man should be on his own).

The literal meaning of the verb tocjâ is to touch; for instance, al tocje means he touches. As for tocjâi a, this may be read as must or to fall unto the lot of. Examples: ti tocje partî (it falls unto thy lot to depart; thou must depart); mi tocje dâ (it falls unto my lot to give; I must give). Whereas means to give, dâi means to give unto him; to give him, where i (unto him) is attached to the infinitive: dâi un jutori (to give unto him a helper; to give him a helper).

The Friulian for mirror is the masculine spieli; in the context of this verse, spieli is read counterpart.

Verse 19

Il Signôr Diu al fasè, simpri cul pulvin, il stamp di dutis lis bestiis salvadiis e di ducj i ucei dal cîl, e ju menà denant dal om par che ur metès un non: ognidun al varès vût di puartâ il non che l’om i varès metût.

Il Signôr Diu al fasè (the Lord God made), simpri cul pulvin (ever with dust), il stamp di dutis lis bestiis salvadiis (the form of all the wild beasts) e di ducj i ucei dal cîl (and of all the birds of the heaven), e ju menà denant dal om (and led them before the man) par che ur metès un non (that unto them he might put a name): ognidun al varès vût di puartâ il non (each ought to have borne the name) che l’om i varès metût (which unto it the man would have put).

Vocabulary: il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), fâ il stamp di (to make the form of), simpri (ever), il pulvin (dust), dut (all), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), un ucel (bird), il cîl (heaven), menâ (to lead), denant di (before), un om (man), il non (name), meti (to put), ognidun (each), vê di (to have to), puartâ (to bear).

The Lord God made the form of all the wild beasts – al fasè il stamp di dutis lis bestiis salvadiis, which is to say that he formed them.

Ju (direct object) means them; ur (indirect object) means unto them. Consider: e ju menà (and he led them) denant dal om (before the man) par che ur metès un non (that unto them he might put a name). Al metès is the masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet.

Al varès (he would have) is the third-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb vê; by combining this with a past participle, formed is the masculine, third-person singular of the condizionâl passât: al varès metût (he would have put). When followed by di, sense of obligation is introduced; al varès vût di puartâ il non (it ought to have borne the name).

Verse 20

E cussì l’om ur metè i nons a dutis lis bestiis, ai ucei dal cîl e a dutis lis bestiis salvadiis, ma, pal om, no si cjatà un jutori che al fos il so spieli.

E cussì (and so) l’om ur metè i nons a dutis lis bestiis, ai ucei dal cîl e a dutis lis bestiis salvadiis (the man put the names unto all the beasts, unto the birds of the heaven and unto all the wild beasts), ma, pal om, no si cjatà un jutori che al fos il so spieli (but for the man a helper was not found who might be his counterpart).

Vocabulary: cussì (so), un om (man), meti (to put), il non (name), dut (all), la bestie (beast), un ucel (bird), il cîl (heaven), salvadi (wild), ma (but), pal om (for the man), cjatâsi (to be found), un jutori (helper), il spieli (counterpart).

L’om ur metè i nons a dutis lis bestiis: the man put the names unto all the beasts. Ur: unto them. The reader will ntoe that Friulian makes a repetition of unto: l’om (the man) ur metè (unto them put) i nons (the names) a dutis lis bestiis (unto all the beasts).

Pal is the contraction of par (for) and the masculine definite article il; pal om, then, means for the man.

Al fos is in the same tense as al metès, al fasès, al lavoràs: it is the masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet of the verb jessi. First consider: no si cjate un jutori che al sedi il so spieli: no si cjate (is not found) un jutori (a helper) che al sedi (who may be) il so spieli (his counterpart). Now consider: no si cjatà un jutori che al fos il so spieli: no si cjatà (was not found) un jutori (a helper) che al fos (who might be) il so spieli (his counterpart).

Verse 21

Alore il Signôr Diu i fasè vignî al om une sium tant grande che s’indurmidì. I gjavà une cueste des sôs e al tornà a sierâ la cjar tal so puest.

Alore il Signôr Diu (then the Lord God) i fasè vignî al om une sium tant grande (made to come unto the man a sleepiness so great) che s’indurmidì (that he fell asleep). I gjavà une cueste des sôs (he withdrew from him a rib of his) e al tornà a sierâ la cjar tal so puest (and closed the flesh again in its place).

Vocabulary: alore (then), il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), vignî (to come), fâ vignî (to make to come), un om (man), la sium (sleepiness), grant (great), tant grant che (so great that), indurmidîsi (to fall asleep), gjavâ (to withdraw), la cueste (rib), sierâ (to close), tornâ a sierâ (to close again), la cjar (flesh), il puest (place).

The adjective grant means great; its four forms are: grant (masculine singular); grande (feminine singular); grancj (masculine plural), grandis (feminine plural).

The reflexive indurmidîsi means to fall asleep; it is found employed in the third-person singular of the passât sempliç: s’indurmidì (he fell asleep).

I gjavà une cueste des sôs: he withdrew from him a rib of his. Consider: i ({from} unto him) gjavà (did he withdraw; he withdrew) une cueste (a rib) des sôs (of his). Des sôs means of his, where des is the contraction of di + lis; by des sôs, that which is understood is des sôs cuestis (of his ribs). Consider also: la cueste (the rib); lis cuestis (the ribs); la sô cueste (his rib); lis sôs cuestis (his ribs); de sô cueste (of his rib); des sôs cuestis (of his ribs); i gjavà une cueste des sôs (he withdrew from him a rib of his).

Al tornà a sierâ la cjar: he closed the flesh again. The verb tornâ (to return) is used to convey that which English does with again, anew, back, or with re- prefixed to a verb: sierâ (to close); tornâ a sierâ (to close again). More examples: considerâ; tornâ a considerâ (to consider; to reconsider); doprâ; tornâ a doprâ (to use; to reuse).

Verse 22

Po cu la cueste che i veve tirât vie al om il Signôr Diu al fasè une femine e le menà denant dal om.

Po cu la cueste (then with the rib) che i veve tirât vie al om (which he had drawn forth from the man) il Signôr Diu al fasè une femine (did the Lord God make a woman) e le menà denant dal om (and he led her before the man).

Vocabulary: po (then), cun (with), la cueste (rib), tirâ vie (to draw forth), un om (man), il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), (to make), la femine (woman), menâ (to lead), denant di (before).

Verse 23

Alore chel al disè: “Cheste volte mo sì ch’e je vuès dai miei vues e cjar de mê cjar! Cheste si clamarà femine par vie ch’e je stade gjavade fûr dal om!”.

Alore chel al disè (then that one said): “Cheste volte mo sì ch’e je vuès dai miei vues (now indeed is she bone of my bones) e cjar de mê cjar (and flesh of my flesh). Cheste si clamarà femine (this one shall be called woman) par vie ch’e je stade gjavade fûr dal om!” (given that she was withdrawn from man).

Vocabulary: alore (then), chel (that), (to say), chest (this), une volte (one time), cheste volte mo sì che (now indeed), il vuès (bone), la cjar (flesh), clamâ (to call), clamâsi (to be called), la femine (woman), par vie che (given that), gjavâ fûr (to withdraw).

The Friulian for bone is the masculine vuès (or vues), with its plural vues; the text here employs the accented vuès in the singular, for some speakers pronounce a distinction between singular and plural.

Gjavâ fûr is used passively in the text of this verse. Consider these active and passive examples, in masculine and feminine singular form: al à gjavât fûr; al è stât gjavât fûr (he has withdrawn; he was withdrawn); e à gjavât fûr; e je stade gjavade fûr (she has withdrawn; she was withdrawn).

Verse 24

Par chel l’om al bandone so pari e sô mari e si tire dongje de sô femine e a deventin une cjar sole.

Par chel l’om al bandone so pari e sô mari (therefore man forsakes his father and his mother) e si tire dongje de sô femine (and draws himself alongside his wife) e a deventin une cjar sole (and they become a single flesh).

Vocabulary: par chel (therefore), un om (man), bandonâ (to forsake), il pari (father), la mari (mother), tirâsi dongje (to draw oneself alongside), la femine (wife), deventâ (to become), la cjar (flesh), sôl (single).

The Friulian for father is the masculine pari; for mother, it is the feminine mari. So pari means his father; her father; sô mari means his mother; her mother.

Sôl here takes its feminine singular form sole to accord with the feminine singular cjar.

Verse 25

A jerin, po, ducj i doi crots, tant l’om che la femine, ma no vevin rivuart un dal altri.

A jerin, po, ducj i doi crots (they were, then, both naked), tant l’om che la femine (as much the man as the woman), ma no vevin rivuart un dal altri (but they had not shame the one before the other).

Vocabulary: po (then), doi (two), ducj i doi (both), crot (naked), tant… che (as much… as), un om (man) la femine (woman), ma (but), (to have), il rivuart (shame), altri (other).