Jezus – the name of Jesus in Polish

The name of our Lord Jesus in the Polish language is Jezus. His name is declinable in Polish, meaning that its form must change in accordance with how it is used grammatically. This entry will help the reader to understand what these different forms are and when they are used.

Nominative – JEZUS

The nominative form of our Lord’s name is Jezus; this is the form used when His name functions grammatically as the subject of a sentence: Jezus jest Panem (Jesus is the Lord); Jezus jest Synem Bożym (Jesus is the Son of God); Jezus jest Synem Człowieczym (Jesus is the Son of Man); Jezus jest Mesjaszem (Jesus is the Messiah).

In the instances above, Pan (m., Lord), Syn Boży (m., Son of God), Syn Człowieczy (m., Son of Man) and Mesjasz (m., Messiah) have all taken their instrumental forms. The reader will note that Boży and Człowieczy are adjectives, meaning, respectively, Godly; of God and Human; of Man.

More examples of our Lord’s name in the nominative: gdy Jezus to usłyszał (when Jesus heard this); Jezus dał im taką odpowiedź (Jesus gave them such response); Jezus rzekł do nich (Jesus said unto them); potem Jezus odszedł stamtąd (then Jesus departed thence).

The following passage is drawn from chapter 2 of the gospel according to Matthew, verses 1-2, where the name of our Lord is again in the nominative:

Gdy zaś Jezus narodził się w Betlejem w Judei (now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem, in Judea) za panowania króla Heroda (under the rule of King Herod), oto Mędrcy ze Wschodu przybyli do Jerozolimy (so it is that Wise Men from the East came unto Jerusalem) i pytali (and would ask): «Gdzie jest nowo narodzony król żydowski? (where is the newly born Jewish king?). Ujrzeliśmy bowiem Jego gwiazdę na Wschodzie (for we have seen His star in the East) i przybyliśmy oddać Mu pokłon» (and are come to render Him obeisance).

Ewangelia według świętego Mateusza 2,1-2

Vocabulary list for the passage above: gdy (when), zaś (now), narodzić się (pf., to be born), Betlejem (n., Bethlehem), Judea (f., Judea), panowanie (n., rule), król (m., king), Herod (m., Herod), oto (so it is that), mędrzec (m., wise man), wschód (m., east), przybyć (pf., to come), Jerozolima (f., Jerusalem), pytać (impf., to ask), gdzie (where), nowo (newly), narodzony (born), żydowski (Jewish), ujrzeć (pf., to see), bowiem (for), gwiazda (f., star), oddać (pf., to render), pokłon (m., obeisance).

Genitive – JEZUSA

The genitive form of our Lord’s name in Polish is Jezusa. This genitive form often takes the meaning of Jesus, but there are also other uses for it.

With the meaning of Jesus, following are different instances of the genitive: narodzenie Jezusa (the birth of Jesus); na widok Jezusa (at the sight of Jesus); ciało Jezusa (the body of Jesus); na imię Jezusa (in the name of Jesus); Duch Jezusa (the Spirit of Jesus); Matka Jezusa (the Mother of Jesus).

Now, in nominative position, the Polish for Jesus is Jezus, whereas for the Lord it is Pan. The Polish, then, for the Lord Jesus is Pan Jezus, in its nominative position. Just as Jezus takes the form Jezusa in the genitive, so too does Pan take the form Pana in the same, whence Pana Jezusa for genitive form. The following is drawn from the Way of the Cross, Station 1; in this passage, Pan Jezus takes its genitive form Pana Jezusa:

Rozważ, jak Piłat (consider how Pilate), po okrutnem ubiczowaniu (after the cruel scourging) i ukoronowaniu cierniem (and crowning by thorn{s}) Pana Jezusa (of the Lord Jesus), skazuje Go na śmierć (sentenceth Him unto death), i jak Zbawiciel (and how the Saviour) spokojnie wyrok ten przyjmuje (tranquilly accepteth this verdict).

Droga krzyżowa, Stacja I

Vocabulary list for the passage above: rozważyć (pf., to consider), okrutny (cruel), ubiczować (pf., to scourge), ubiczowanie (n., scourging), ukoronować (pf., to crown), ukoronowanie (n., crowning), cierń (m., thorn), skazywać (impf., to sentence), śmierć (f., death), zbawiciel (m., saviour), spokojnie (tranquilly), wyrok (m., verdict), przyjmować (impf., to accept).

In the following instance from the gospel according to John 18, verses 4-5, the genitive form Jezusa is employed, for szukać (to seek) takes the genitive:

«Kogo szukacie?» (whom seek you?). Odpowiedzieli Mu (they responded unto Him): «Jezusa z Nazaretu» (Jesus of Nazareth).

Ewangelia według świętego Jana 18,4-5

The genitive Jezusa is also employed after a preposition requiring the use of this case; this is especially encountered in the Scriptures following do (unto), for instance: wtedy Piotr rzekł do Jezusa (then Peter said unto Jesus); i przyprowadził go do Jezusa (and he brought him unto Jesus); gdy przyszli do Jezusa (when they came unto Jesus). In this next instance, it is rather following u (at, unto) that the genitive is employed: wtedy Apostołowie zebrali się u Jezusa (then the Apostles gathered together unto Jesus).

Dative – JEZUSOWI

When not preceded by a preposition, the dative form Jezusowi takes the rendering unto Jesus, for instance: odpowiedzieli więc Jezusowi (they responded therefore unto Jesus); donieśli o tym Jezusowi (they reported of this unto Jesus); co by uczynić Jezusowi (that which they might do unto Jesus); Maria namaściła Jezusowi nogi (Mary anointed the feet unto Jesus).

The dative form Jezusowi is also employed after a preposition which requires its use. For instance, przeciw Jezusowi means against Jesus.

Accusative – JEZUSA

The accusative form Jezusa is not to be confused with the genitive Jezusa. One of the uses of the accusative Jezusa is that His name should be marked for direct object: skoro z daleka ujrzał Jezusa (so soon as he saw Jesus from afar); wówczas Piłat wziął Jezusa i kazał Go ubiczować (then Pilate took Jesus and bade scourge Him).

The gospel according to Matthew 4 tells of the temptation of Jesus, and of the appearance of the devil to Him. In the first verse of this chapter, the accusative form Jezusa is encountered:

Wtedy Duch (then the Spirit) wyprowadził Jezusa (brought forth Jesus) na pustynię (into the desert), aby był kuszony (that He might be tempted) przez diabła (by the devil).

Ewangelia według świętego Mateusza 4,1

Vocabulary list for the passage above: wtedy (then), duch (m., spirit), wyprowadzić (pf., to bring forth), Jezus (m., Jesus), pustynia (f., desert), kusić (impf., to tempt), przez (by), diabeł (m., devil).

The Polish for through Jesus is przez Jezusa, where the accusative is employed following przez. In these next instances, the accusative is employed following na, where movement is denoted: rzucili się na Jezusa (they cast themselves upon Jesus); patrzmy na Jezusa (let us look unto Jesus).

Instrumental – JEZUSEM

The instrumental form Jezusem is especially employed following z (with) and za (behind), for instance: razem z Jezusem (together with Jesus); poszli za Jezusem (they went behind Jesus, which is to say, they followed Jesus).

In the following instance drawn from the gospel according to Matthew 27:22, not only do we find the name of our Lord in its instrumental position Jezusem, we also encounter the Polish for Messiah, which is Mesjasz:

Rzekł do nich Piłat (Pilate said unto them): «Cóż więc mam uczynić z Jezusem (what ever am I therefore to do with Jesus), którego nazywają Mesjaszem?» (whom they call the Messiah?).

Ewangelia według świętego Mateusza 27,22

The instrumental Jezusem also takes the sense of as Jesus, for instance: człowiek zwany Jezusem uczynił błoto (the man called Jesus made mud). Here, the reader will understand that the sense of this instance is one of the man called {as} Jesus made mud.

Locative – JEZUSIE

To speak of in Jesus, the locative form Jezusie is employed following w, for instance: zmartwychwstanie umarłych w Jezusie (resurrection of the dead in Jesus); zgodnie z prawdą, jaka jest w Jezusie (in keeping with the truth which is in Jesus).

The locative is also employed following o, meaning about or of, for instance: wieść o Jezusie (news about Jesus; news of Jesus); skoro setnik posłyszał o Jezusie (so soon as the centurion heard about Jesus; so soon as the centurion heard of Jesus).

Vocative – JEZUSIE / JEZU

The vocative case is used when addressing our Lord. There are two forms possible in Polish: Jezusie or Jezu.

Employing the form Jezusie, this instance may be given: Jezusie, Synu Dawida, ulituj się nade mną (Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me). Not only does Jezus here take the vocative form Jezusie, so too does Syn (Son) take its vocative form Synu. The vocative form Jezusie is not to be confused with the locative Jezusie.

Of the vocative form Jezu, the Way of the Cross texts abound in examples thereof, for instance: o najlitościwszy Jezu (O most merciful Jesus); o Jezu najczcigodniejszy (O Jesus most venerable); o Jezu najmiłościwszy (O Jesus most beloved); o najboleściwszy Jezu (O most sorrowful Jesus); o Jezu najsłodszy (O Jesus most sweet); o Jezu, kocham Cię (O Jesus, I cherish Thee).