On the contraction of the Friulian INDI

The Friulian indi means thereof. In the spoken language, but also in written texts, indi undergoes contraction. The reader will rarely encounter the full form indi, so much so that even the text of the Bible in Friulian prefers the contracted forms.

This entry will examine some of the contractions of indi to be encountered by the reader in the contemporary translation of the Bible in Friulian. In preparing this entry, I have taken the view that the reader is not an absolute beginner and has familiarised himself with the basics of Friulian grammar, which he may acquire by reading other entries on this website. The contents of this entry are not exhaustive; the reader will assuredly meet with forms not described here, both standard and non-standard. Let this entry therefore serve as nothing more than a brief introduction to the student, that he should be able to progress on his own in working out the meaning of all the forms of indi to be encountered in his dealings with the Friulian language.

Contraction of indi is carried out so: When the verb after indi begins with a consonant, the final i drops and the d is changed to t, for instance, us int doi cuatri (I give you four thereof). Another example: ur int dè a di chei che a jerin cun lui (he gave thereof unto those who were with him; Luche 6,4). When the verb after indi begins with a vowel, the final i again drops but the d is maintained, for instance, ind âstu? (hast thou thereof?). As for the initial i of indi, it drops when the atonic pronoun immediately preceding it ends in a vowel. For instance, o ’nd ài means I have thereof; o ’nt viôt means I see thereof; o ’nt doi trê means I give three thereof; no tu ’nd âs means thou hast not thereof. The atonic al, for its part, must first change to a; now that it ends in a vowel, it causes the loss of the initial i of indi; in this way, a ’nd è means thereof is; a ’nt sarà means thereof will be; and lui a ’nd à means he has thereof. The same applies to nol: it must first change to no, wherefore it now ends in a vowel; this causes the loss of the initial i of indi, so that, for instance, lui no ’nd à means he has not thereof. More examples: no tu ’nd âs vonde (thou hast not enough thereof); di ducj i nemâi monts, tu ’nt cjolarâs dome un pâr, mascjo e mascje (of all the clean animals, thou shalt take thereof but one pair, male and female; Gjenesi 7,2); di ce che al è dai ebreus no ’nt creparà un cjâf (of that which is of the Hebrews not a head thereof will die; Esodo 9,4).

Indi will also take position at the end of an infinitive, where it often assumes the form nt. For instance, mangjâ means to eat, but mangjânt means to eat thereof; tocjâ means to touch, but tocjânt means to touch thereof; means to make, but fânt means to make thereof; gjavâ means to remove, but gjavânt means to remove thereof; means to have, but vênt means to have thereof; savê means to know, but savênt means to know thereof. The reader will keep his eye out for variant formations; for instance, fânt means to make thereof, but so too does fâdint, and gjavânt means to remove thereof, but so too does gjavâdint.

At Gjenesi 2,17, the Lord God says to the man: Ma l’arbul de cognossince dal ben e dal mâl no tu âs di mangjânt parcè che la dì che tu ’nt mangjarâs, tu murarâs!”. Translated into English: Ma l’arbul (but the tree) de cognossince (of the knowledge) dal ben e dal mâl (of good and bad) no tu âs di mangjânt (art thou not to eat thereof) parcè che la dì che tu ’nt mangjarâs (for the day when thou wilt eat thereof), tu murarâs!” (thou shalt die). In this verse, we have two instances of indi, namely: mangjânt (to eat thereof) and tu ’nt mangjarâs (thou wilt eat thereof). In tu ’nt mangjarâs, the Friulian indi contracts to ’nt, for it is preceded by a vowel (the u of tu) and followed by a consonant (the m of mangjarâs).

The reader will frequently encounter contractions of indi in negated constructions of the sort: no ’nt sarà plui diluvis par disfâ la tiere (there will be no more floods to undo the earth; Gjenesi 9,11); chi no ’nd è oms (here there are not men; Gjenesi 19,31); tu viodarâs che in chest paîs no ’nd è timôr di Diu (thou wilt see that in this country there is not fear of God; Gjenesi 20,11); no ’nd jere plui aghe (there was no more water; Gjenesi 21,15); no ’nd jere vonde teren pal lôr besteam (there was not enough ground for their cattle; Gjenesi 36,7); no ’nd jere un famei di numar (there was not one servant of the number; Gjenesi 39,11); viodint che no ’nd jere anime aventi (in seeing that there was not a soul there; Esodo 2,12); no ’nd è un come il Signôr nestri Diu (there is not one like the Lord our God; Esodo 8,6); no ’nd jerino tombâi ventijù pal Egjit, che tu nus âs menâts a murî tal desert? (were there not any graves down there in Egypt, that thou hast led us to die in the desert?; Esodo 14,11).

As the purpose of this entry is not to examine variants, I shall limit myself to the mention of the following: In the newer version of the contemporary translation of the Bible in Friulian, the preference is to omit the atonic pronoun in the presence of indi, so that, for instance, the older Friulian reading se and è arbui o no (whether there be trees or not; Numars 13,20) has since been modified to se ind è arbui o no in the newer version. The reader will note moreover that in the older reading it was not a ’nd which was used (and presented at the fourth paragraph) but and, with the apostrophe excluded. More examples: se and è pôcs o tancj {older reading}, se ind è pôcs o tancj {newer reading} (whether there be few or many; Numars 13,18); and jere dibot ancje masse {older reading}, ind jere dibot ancje masse {newer reading} (there were well-nigh even too many; Esodo 36,7); se ant reste pal indoman {older reading}, se int reste pal indoman {newer reading} (if thereof remain for next day; Esodo 12,10).