Quo vadis?

At Genesis 32:18, the question whither goest thou? (version Douay) is found. This entry will examine how such question is expressed in Latin, Polish and Friulian.

Latin. Quo vadis? For whither, the Latin is quo. As for vadis, this is a second-person singular form meaning thou goest, whose present infinitive is vadere (to go). Following is the entire conjugation of this verb in the present tense: vado (I go); vadis (thou goest); vadit (he/she goeth); vadimus (we go); vaditis (you go); vadunt (they go). Wherefore: Quo vadis? (whither goest thou?). The reader will note that quo vadis? may also be rendered where are you going?, were a contemporary English rendering to be preferred; however, such rendering is less than ideal for study purposes: it is not clear whether the English you is second-person singular or plural, whereas all doubt is removed by employing the traditional, second-person singular thou.

Polish. Dokąd idziesz? The Polish for whither is dokąd, which can be defined as do jakiego miejsca (to which place). As for idziesz, this is a second-person singular form meaning thou goest, from the imperfective iść (to go). Following is the entire conjugation of iść in the present tense: idę (I go); idziesz (thou goest); idzie (he/she goeth); idziemy (we go); idziecie (you go); idą (they go). Wherefore: Dokąd idziesz? (whither goest thou?). The reader will note that dokąd idziesz? is typically rendered where are you going? in contemporary English; however, such rendering is less than ideal for study purposes: it is not clear whether the English you is second-person singular or plural, whereas all doubt is removed by employing the traditional, second-person singular thou.

Friulian. Là vâstu? One of the ways whither is expressed in Friulian is with là; also possible are dulà and indulà. The question whither goest thou? may therefore be put so in Friulian: là vâstu?; dulà vâstu?; indulà vâstu?; it is the form là vâstu? which is encountered at the verse in question. Tu tu vâs, or simply tu vâs, is a second-person singular form meaning thou goest, from the irregular verb (to go). When tu vâs is inverted to take the form vâstu?, it becomes an interrogative (goest thou?). Following is the entire conjugation of in the present tense: o voi (I go); tu vâs (thou goest); al va (he goeth); e va (she goeth); o lin (we go); o lais (you go); a van (they go). Here now are the interrogative forms: voio? (go I?); vâstu? (goest thou?); vaial? (goeth he?); vaie? (goeth she?); lino? (go we?); laiso? (go you?); vano? (go they?). The reader will take care to distinguish between (whither) and (to go); he will moreover note that là, dulà and indulà are also the Friulian equivalents of where, in the sense of in which place, for instance: indulà sêstu? (where art thou?); dulà isal to fradi? (where is thy brother?); la citât là che al jere a stâ (the city where he was dwelling). Wherefore: Là vâstu? (whither goest thou?). The reader will note that là vâstu? is typically rendered where are you going? in contemporary English; however, such rendering is less than ideal for study purposes: it is not clear whether the English you is second-person singular or plural, whereas all doubt is removed by employing the traditional, second-person singular thou.