Diligite inimicos vestros

At Matthew 5:43-48, Jesus says (version Douay): You have heard that it hath been said: Thou shalt love thy neighbour and hate thy enemy. But I say to you: Love your enemies; do good to them that hate you; and pray for them that persecute and calumniate you; That you may be the children of your Father who is in heaven, who maketh his sun to rise upon the good and bad and raineth upon the just and the unjust. For, if you love them that love you, what reward shall you have? Do not even the publicans this? And, if you salute your brethren only, what do you more? Do not also the heathens this? Be you therefore perfect, as also your heavenly Father is perfect. This entry will examine, in Latin, Polish and Friulian versions, the words of Jesus love your enemies, verse 44; the full text of the six verses is provided in all three languages at the end of this entry for the reader’s independent consideration.

Latin. Diligite inimicos vestros. The Latin diligite is a second-person plural imperative; its related present infinitive is diligere (to love). All forms of this verb mentioned in the present Latin notes are pronounced with stress on the first syllable. Consider the following imperatives: dilige (love {thou}; second-person singular); diligite (love {you}; second-person plural). The Latin for enemy is the masculine inimicus, with stress on the penultimate; in the accusative singular, inimicus takes the form inimicum, whereas in the accusative plural, it takes the form inimicos. The Latin for the possessive adjective your (second-person plural), in the nominative masculine singular, is vester; however, found in the words of Jesus is vestros, which accords with inimicos. Wherefore: Diligite inimicos vestros (love your enemies).

Polish. Miłujcie waszych nieprzyjaciół. The imperfective verb miłować is Polish for to love; it knows the following second-person imperatives: miłuj (love {thou}; singular) and, as in the words of Jesus, miłujcie (love {you}; plural). As for enemy, the Polish is the masculine noun nieprzyjaciel, which, in the accusative, takes the following forms: nieprzyjaciela (singular) and, as in the words of Jesus, nieprzyjaciół (plural). The Polish for the possessive adjective your (second-person plural), in the nominative masculine personal singular, is wasz; however, found in the words of Jesus is waszych, which accords with nieprzyjaciół. Wherefore: Miłujcie waszych nieprzyjaciół (love your enemies).

Friulian. Amait i vuestris nemîs. The Friulian verb amâ means to love; it knows the following second-person imperatives: ame (love {thou}; singular) and, as in the words of Jesus, amait (love {you}; plural). As for enemy, the Friulian is the masculine noun nemì, which, in the plural, takes the form nemîs. The Friulian for the possessive adjective your (second-person plural), in the masculine singular, is vuestri. Consider all the following: il to nemì (thine enemy); i tiei nemîs (thine enemies); il vuestri nemì (your enemy); i vuestris nemîs (your enemies). Wherefore: Amait i vuestris nemîs (love your enemies).

Below is found the text of Matthew 5:43-48 in Latin, Polish and Friulian versions, wherein Jesus pronounces the words forming the focus of this entry: love your enemies.

Latin (Biblia Vulgata): Audistis quia dictum est: Diliges proximum tuum, et odio habebis inimicum tuum. Ego autem dico vobis: Diligite inimicos vestros, benefacite his qui oderunt vos, et orate pro persequentibus et calumniantibus vos: ut sitis filii Patris vestri, qui in caelis est: qui solem suum oriri facit super bonos et malos: et pluit super justos et injustos. Si enim diligitis eos qui vos diligunt, quam mercedem habebitis? nonne et publicani hoc faciunt? Et si salutaveritis fratres vestros tantum, quid amplius facitis? nonne et ethnici hoc faciunt? Estote ergo vos perfecti, sicut et Pater vester caelestis perfectus est.

Polish (Biblia Tysiąclecia): Słyszeliście, że powiedziano: Będziesz miłował swego bliźniego, a nieprzyjaciela swego będziesz nienawidził. A Ja wam powiadam: Miłujcie waszych nieprzyjaciół i módlcie się za tych, którzy was prześladują; abyście się stali synami Ojca waszego, który jest w niebie; ponieważ On sprawia, że słońce Jego wschodzi nad złymi i nad dobrymi, i On zsyła deszcz na sprawiedliwych i niesprawiedliwych. Jeśli bowiem miłujecie tych, którzy was miłują, cóż za nagrodę mieć będziecie? Czyż i celnicy tego nie czynią? I jeśli pozdrawiacie tylko swych braci, cóż szczególnego czynicie? Czyż i poganie tego nie czynią? Bądźcie więc wy doskonali, jak doskonały jest Ojciec wasz niebieski.

Friulian (Bibie par un popul): O vês sintût che al è stât dit: Tu amarâs il to prossim e tu odearâs il to nemì. Jo us dîs invezit: amait i vuestris nemîs e preait par chei che us perseguitin, par che o sedis fîs dal Pari vuestri che al è tai cîi, che al fâs jevâ il so soreli sui triscj come sui bogns e al fâs plovi sui juscj come sui injuscj. Di fat se ur volês ben dome a di chei che us vuelin ben, ce ricompense varessiso di vê? No fasino compagn ancje i publicans? E se o saludais dome i vuestris fradis, ce fasêso di speciâl? No fasino cussì ancje i paians? Vualtris duncje o varês di jessi perfets come che al è perfet il Pari vuestri che al è tai cîi.