Cuius es filia?

At Genesis 24:23, Abraham’s servant asks Rebekah: Whose daughter art thou? (version Douay). This entry will examine how Latin, Polish and Friulian have this same question expressed.

Latin. Cuius es filia? The Latin cuius means whose. For instance, had the servant simply asked whose art thou?, the question could have been put cuius es?, with es being the second-person singular of the present indicative of the Latin verb sum (present infinitive esse). Two more instances: cuius est? (whose is it?); cuius sunt? (whose are they?). For review: sum (I am; first-person singular); es (thou art; second-person singular); est (he/she/it is; third-person singular); sumus (we are; first-person plural); estis (you are; second-person plural); sunt (they are; third-person plural). Filia, a feminine noun, is Latin for daughter. Wherefore: Cuius es filia? (whose daughter art thou?). To conclude with a similar example: Cuius filius es? (whose son art thou?).

Polish. Czyją jesteś córką? The Polish czyj means whose. In the nominative singular, czyj takes the following forms: czyj (masculine); czyje (neuter); czyja (feminine). In this way, for instance, we have the following question in Polish: czyje to jest? (whose is this?). For review: jestem (I am; first-person singular); jesteś (thou art; second-person singular); jest (he/she/it is; third-person singular); jesteśmy (we are; first-person plural); jesteście (you are; second-person plural); (they are; third-person plural). The Polish for daughter is the feminine noun córka. However, in the question asked by Abraham’s servant, we find that this noun is fallen into instrumental position: córką ({as} daughter; {in function of} daughter); we also find that czyj is fallen into its feminine and instrumental position czyją, to accord with the feminine and instrumental córką. Wherefore: Czyją jesteś córką? (whose daughter art thou?). To conclude with a similar example: Czyim jesteś synem? (whose son art thou?).

Friulian. Fie di cui sêstu tu? The feminine noun fie is Friulian for daughter. As for di, this is the Friulian for of, from, whereas cui is the Friulian for who, whence the English of whom for direct equivalent of the Friulian di cui, which can also be rendered whose in English: fie di cui (whose daughter [daughter of whom]). For review: jo o soi (I am; first-person singular); tu tu sês (thou art; second-person singular); lui al è (he/it is; masculine third-person singular); jê e je (she/it is; feminine third-person singular); nô o sin (we are; first-person plural); vualtris o sês (you are; second-person plural); lôr a son (they are; third-person plural). In the interrogative, an inversion occurs: sêstu tu? (art thou?). Wherefore: Fie di cui sêstu tu? (whose daughter art thou?). To conclude with a similar example: Fiis di cui sêso vualtris? (whose daughters are you?).