Dabit vobis Dominus vespere carnes edere

At Exodus 16:8, Moses says to the children of Israel: In the evening the Lord will give you flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full. This entry will examine how Latin, Polish and Friulian have the first half of the words of Moses rendered, which is to say, in the evening the Lord will give you flesh to eat.

Latin. Dabit vobis Dominus vespere carnes edere. The Latin for Lord is the masculine noun Dominus, which serves here as the subject of the sentence. As for dabit, this is a third-person singular and future tense form meaning {he} will give, from the present infinitive dare (to give). Following is the future tense of this verb in all persons: dabo (I shall give; first-person singular); dabis (thou wilt give; second-person singular); dabit (he/she will give; third-person singular); dabimus (we shall give; first-person plural); dabitis (you will give; second-person plural); dabunt (they will give; third-person plural). The second-person plural and dative vobis means unto you; for information, the Latin for the second-person singular unto thee is tibi. The masculine noun vesper is Latin for evening; vespere is taken as in the evening. For flesh or meat, the Latin is the feminine noun caro. In the accusative, caro takes the form carnem; however, it is rather carnes which we find in the words of Moses, being not only accusative but also plural. The present infinitive edere means to eat. Consider: Dabit ({he} will give) vobis (unto you) Dominus (the Lord) vespere (in the evening) carnes (fleshes; meats) edere (to eat). Rather than employ the plural, the collective flesh is instead used in the final English rendering which follows. Wherefore: Dabit vobis Dominus vespere carnes edere (the Lord will give you in the evening flesh to eat).

Polish. Wieczorem Pan da wam mięso do jedzenia. The Polish for evening is the masculine noun wieczór; the form wieczorem is here taken as in the evening. The masculine noun Pan is Polish for Lord. Dać is a perfective verb meaning to give; the third-person singular form da means {he} will give. Following is the perfective future of this verb in all persons: dam (I shall give; first-person singular); dasz (thou wilt give; second-person singular); da (he/she will give; third-person singular); damy (we shall give; first-person plural); dacie (you will give; second-person plural); dadzą (they will give; third-person plural). The second-person plural and dative wam means unto you; for information, the Polish for the second-person singular unto thee is ci or tobie. For flesh or meat, the Polish is the neuter noun mięso; in the words of Moses, it is found in the accusative. Jedzenie (eating) is a verbal noun, neuter, deriving from the imperfective verb jeść (to eat). After the preposition do, the genitive is employed, whence do jedzenia (for eating); rather than the cumbersome for eating, the customary English rendering would rather be to eat. Wherefore: Wieczorem Pan da wam mięso do jedzenia (in the evening the Lord will give you flesh to eat).

Friulian. Usgnot il Signôr us darà di mangjâ cjar. The Friulian usgnot is here taken as in the evening; however, this is also the Friulian for tonight. As for the masculine noun Signôr, this is Friulian for Lord. The verb means to give; its masculine and third-person singular form in the future tense is al darà. In this way, the Friulian for the Lord will give is il Signôr al darà; however, the atonic al is omitted in the presence of us (unto you; second-person plural). For information, the Friulian for the second-person singular unto thee is ti. The Friulian for to eat is mangjâ; as for dâ di mangjâ, this is read as to give to eat. For flesh or meat, the Friulian is the feminine noun cjar. Wherefore: Usgnot il Signôr us darà di mangjâ cjar (in the evening the Lord will give you to eat flesh).

Below is found the text of Exodus 16:6-8 in Latin, Polish and Friulian versions, for the reader’s independent consideration.

Latin (Biblia Vulgata): Dixeruntque Moyses et Aaron ad omnes filios Israel: Vespere scietis quod Dominus eduxerit vos de terra Aegypti, et mane videbitis gloriam Domini: audivit enim murmur vestrum contra Dominum: nos vero quid sumus, quia mussitastis contra nos? Et ait Moyses: Dabit vobis Dominus vespere carnes edere, et mane panes in saturitate: eo quod audiret murmurationes vestras quibus murmurati estis contra eum: nos enim quid sumus? nec contra nos est murmur vestrum, sed contra Dominum.

Polish (Biblia Tysiąclecia): Mojżesz i Aaron powiedzieli do społeczności Izraelitów: «Tego wieczora ujrzycie, że to Pan wyprowadził was z ziemi egipskiej. A rano ujrzycie chwałę Pana, gdyż usłyszał On, że szemrzecie przeciw Panu. Czymże my jesteśmy, że szemrzecie przeciw nam?» Mojżesz powiedział: «Wieczorem Pan da wam mięso do jedzenia, a rano chleb do sytości, bo słyszał Pan szemranie wasze przeciw Niemu. Czymże bowiem my jesteśmy? Nie szemraliście przeciwko nam, ale przeciw Panu!».

Friulian (Bibie par un popul): Mosè e Aron i diserin a dute la semblee dai fîs di Israel: “Usgnot o savarês che al è stât il Signôr chel che us à fats saltâ fûr de tiere dal Egjit e doman a buinore o viodarês la glorie dal Signôr. Parcè che al è vignût a savê che o vês bruntulât cuintri dal Signôr. E nô, cui sino nô che se cjapais cuintri di nô?”. Dissal Mosè: “Usgnot il Signôr us darà di mangjâ cjar e, a buinore, pan tant che ant volês, parcè che il Signôr al à sintût che o bruntulavis cuintri di lui. Nô, cui sino nô? No vês bruntulât cuintri di nô, ma cuintri dal Signôr!”.