Amen dico tibi: Hodie mecum eris in paradiso

In this entry, the reader will examine the Latin, Polish and Friulian readings of the second of the seven last words of Jesus on the cross, found at Luke 23:43 (version Douay): Amen I say to thee, this day thou shalt be with me in paradise.

Latin. Amen dico tibi: Hodie mecum eris in paradiso. The Latin use of amen here equates to truly; the Douay Bible, in the sense of truly, retains the use of amen in English, and such reading is employed in the final English rendering below. The Latin infinitive dicere means to say, and dico means I say. As for tibi, this is a dative form meaning to thee; it is an inflection of the second-person singular subject pronoun tu, meaning thou. The Latin for today is hodie. As for mecum, this means with me: me (me) + cum (with). Eris, second-person singular of the future indicative of esse (to be; lemma form sum, I am), is here read thou shalt. The Latin for paradise is the masculine noun paradisus; its ablative form is paradiso, whence in paradiso for Latin equivalent of in paradise. Wherefore: Amen dico tibi: Hodie mecum eris in paradiso (amen I say to thee: today with me shalt thou be in paradise).

Polish. Zaprawdę, powiadam ci: Dziś będziesz ze Mną w raju. Of the English truly, zaprawdę is the Polish equivalent. The imperfective powiadać means to say, and powiadam means I say. As for ci, this is a dative form meaning to thee; it is an inflection of the second-person singular subject pronoun ty, meaning thou. Dziś is Polish for today. Będziesz, second-person singular of the future tense of the imperfective być (to be), is here read thou shalt. As for ze Mną, this means with Me: z (with) has taken the form ze to alleviate pronunciation before the initial consonant cluster mn of Mną. Mną is an instrumental form, this case being required by the use of the preposition ze preceding it. The Polish for paradise is the masculine noun raj; its locative form is raju, whence w raju for Polish equivalent of in paradise. Wherefore: Zaprawdę, powiadam ci: Dziś będziesz ze Mną w raju (truly I say to thee: today thou shalt be with Me in paradise).

Friulian. Tal dîs in veretât: vuê tu sarâs cun me in paradîs. The Friulian infinitive means to say, and o dîs means I say. Of dî, the present indicative follows: o dîs (I say; first-person singular); tu disis (thou sayest; second-person singular); al dîs (he/it sayeth; masculine, third-person singular); e dîs (she/it sayeth; feminine, third-person singular); o disìn (we say; first-person plural); o disês (you say; second-person plural); a disin (they say; third-person plural). Ti means to thee, and the masculine singular lu is a direct object pronoun meaning it; when ti and lu come together, they form tal. The reader will note the omission of the atonic o of o dîs when ti (or a contracted form thereof, such as tal) is present: o dîs (I say); ti dîs (I say to thee); tal dîs (I say it to thee). Veretât is a feminine noun meaning truth; in veretât, then, means in truth. The Friulian for today is vuê. As for tu sarâs, second-person singular of the simple future of jessi (to be), this is here read thou shalt. The Friulian for with is cun, and with me is cun me. Paradîs is a masculine noun meaning paradise; the Friulian for in paradise is in paradîs. Wherefore: Tal dîs in veretât: vuê tu sarâs cun me in paradîs (I say it to thee in truth: today thou shalt be with me in paradise).