Pater, in manus tuas commendo spiritum meum

In this entry, examined are the Latin, Polish and Friulian readings of the seventh of the words of Jesus on the cross, pronounced at Luke 23:46, with such being the English reading of the Douay version: Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit.

Latin. Pater, in manus tuas commendo spiritum meum. The Latin for father is the masculine noun pater (nominative); the vocative form of this noun (also pater), employed to address, is indistinguishable from the nominative. Jesus here addresses the Father, whence initial upper case: Pater. As for hand, the Latin is the feminine noun manus; following the preposition in, found is the accusative plural manus tuas, which conveys movement: in manus tuas (into thy hands). Consider: in manu tua (in thy hand); in manum tuam (into thy hand); in manibus tuis (in thy hands); in manus tuas (into thy hands). The first-person singular commendo means I commend, whose present infinitive is commendare (to commend). Commendo is followed by the accusative spiritum meum; in nominative position, the Latin for my spirit is spiritus meus, with spiritus being a masculine noun. Wherefore: Pater, in manus tuas commendo spiritum meum (Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit).

Polish. Ojcze, w Twoje ręce powierzam ducha mego. The Polish for father is the masculine noun ojciec; the vocative form of this noun, which is employed to address, is ojcze. Jesus here addresses the Father, whence initial upper case: Ojcze. As for hand, the Polish is the feminine noun ręka; following the preposition w, found is the accusative plural Twoje ręce, which conveys movement: w Twoje ręce (into Thy hands). Consider: w twojej ręce (in thy hand); w twoją rękę (into thy hand); w twoich rękach (in thy hands); w twoje ręce (into thy hands). The first-person singular powierzam means I commend, from the imperfective powierzać (to commend); for information, the perfective counterpart to this verb is powierzyć. Powierzam is followed by the accusative ducha mego, which can also be expressed as ducha mojego. Duch (spirit) is a masculine and animate noun; in the nominative, the Polish for my spirit is duch mój. Wherefore: Ojcze, w Twoje ręce powierzam ducha mego (Father, into Thy hands I commend My spirit).

Friulian. Pari, tes tôs mans o racomandi il gno spirt. The Friulian for father is the masculine noun pari. Jesus here addresses the Father, whence initial upper case: Pari. As for hand, the Friulian is the feminine noun man. Consider: la tô man (thy hand); lis tôs mans (thy hands); te tô man (in thy hand; into thy hand); tes tôs mans (in thy hands; into thy hands). Te is the contraction of the preposition in and the feminine singular definite article la, whereas tes is the contraction of the preposition in and feminine plural definite article lis. Friulian makes no distinction in form between its equivalent of in and into, so that, for instance, tes tôs mans takes, in its proper context, either the reading in thy hands (location) or into thy hands (movement). The first-person singular o racomandi means I commend, whose infinitive form is racomandâ (to commend); following is the present indicative of this verb: o racomandi (I commend; first-person singular); tu racomandis (thou commendest; second-person singular); al racomande (he commendeth; masculine, third-person singular); e racomande (she commendeth; feminine, third-person singular); o racomandìn (we commend; first-person plural); o racomandais (you commend; second-person plural); a racomandin (they commend; third-person plural). Spirt (spirit) is a masculine noun, whence il gno spirt for Friulian equivalent of my spirit. Wherefore: Pari, tes tôs mans o racomandi il gno spirt (Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit).