Nolite diligere mundum

St. John, in his first letter, writes that the world and the things in the world are not to be loved, for if a man loves the world, love for the Father is not in him. So does 1 John 2:15-17 read in English (version Douay): Love not the world, nor the things which are in the world. If any man love the world, the charity of the Father is not in him. For all that is in the world is the concupiscence of the flesh and the concupiscence of the eyes and the pride of life, which is not of the Father, but is of the world. And the world passeth away and the concupiscence thereof: but he that doth the will of God abideth for ever. This entry will examine the Latin, Polish and Friulian readings of love not the world, nor the things which are in the world. The entirety of verses 15-17 is provided at the end of this entry, in the three languages under consideration, for the reader’s independent contemplation.

Latin. Nolite diligere mundum, neque ea quae in mundo sunt. The Latin for world is the masculine noun mundus; this takes the accusative form mundum in the words of St. John, for it is the direct object of diligere (to love). To form a negated imperative of the second person, Latin employs noli (singular) and nolite (plural), so that noli diligere mundum means love {thou} not the world, but nolite diligere mundum means love {you} not the world. The Latin ea quae may be read the things which; this is a plural construction, whence the employment of the third-person plural sunt (are). Mundus takes the form mundo in ablative position; in mundo, then, means in the world. Neque is Latin for nor. Wherefore: Nolite diligere mundum, neque ea quae in mundo sunt (love not the world nor the things which are in the world).

Polish. Nie miłujcie świata ani tego, co jest na świecie. The Polish for world is the masculine noun świat; this takes the form świata in the genitive, and the form świecie in the locative. The imperative miłujcie is second-person plural, from the imperfective miłować (to love). Consider these second-person imperatives: miłuj (love {thou}; singular); miłujcie (love {you}; plural). These imperatives are negated by the positioning of nie before them: nie miłuj (love {thou} not); nie miłujcie (love {you} not). Given that nie miłujcie is a negation, świat falls into genitive position in nie miłujcie świata (love {you} not the world). As mentioned above, świecie is the locative position of świat, so that na świecie means in the world. To, co jest is Polish for that which is; in the words of St. John, this takes the form tego, co jest, with to having fallen into genitive position tego, for it follows on from the negated nie miłujcie. Ani is Polish for nor. Wherefore: Nie miłujcie świata ani tego, co jest na świecie (love not the world nor that which is in the world).

Friulian. No stait a volêi ben al mont ni a lis robis dal mont. The Friulian for world is the masculine noun mont. The reader will note that, in Friulian, one loves unto another person or thing: volê ben (to love), but volêi ben al mont (to love the world; literally, to love unto the world). In volêi ben al mont, expressed not only is al mont (unto the world, where al is the contraction of the preposition a [unto] and the masculine singular definite article il [the]), but also volêi, where the indirect, third-person singular i (unto it) is suffixed to the infinitive volê; this doubling of the indirect object is a standard feature of Friulian. For instance, jo i vuei ben a Marc means I love Mark, where expressed not only is a Marc (unto Mark), but also i (unto him) preceding the conjugated verb; literally: jo (I) i (unto him) vuei ben (love) a Marc (unto Mark). Consider also: volê ben (to love); volêi ben a Marc (to love Mark). Now, to form a negated imperative of the second person, Friulian employs no sta (singular) and no stait a (plural), so that no sta volêi ben al mont means love {thou} not the world, but no stait a volêi ben al mont means love {you} not the world. The feminine noun robe means thing; its plural form is robis. Consider: la robe (the thing); lis robis (the things); il mont (the world); dal mont (of the world); lis robis dal mont (the things of the world). Dal is the contraction of the preposition di (of) and the masculine singular definite article il (the). In the words of St. John, lis robis dal mont is preceded by a, for it continues on from the use of volê ben; it is further preceded by ni, meaning nor. The reader will note that the Friulian for to love the things of the world is volêur ben a lis robis dal mont, where ur (unto them), suffixed to the infinitive volê, is the plural counterpart of i (unto it). The reader will also note that a lis may contract to aes, but this contraction is avoided in the Bible. Consider now the following: lui no ur vûl ben a lis robis dal mont (he loveth not the things of the world); lui no i vûl ben al mont ni a lis robis dal mont (he loveth not the world nor the things of the world). Wherefore: No stait a volêi ben al mont ni a lis robis dal mont (love not the world nor the things of the world).

The reader will find below the text of 1 John 2:15-17, in Latin, Polish and Friulian versions, for his independent consideration.

Latin (Biblia Vulgata): Nolite diligere mundum, neque ea quae in mundo sunt. Si quis diligit mundum, non est charitas Patris in eo: quoniam omne quod est in mundo, concupiscentia carnis est, et concupiscentia oculorum et superbia vitae: quae non est ex Patre, sed ex mundo est. Et mundus transit, et concupiscentia eius: qui autem facit voluntatem Dei, manet in aeternum.

Polish (Biblia Tysiąclecia): Nie miłujcie świata ani tego, co jest na świecie. Jeśli ktoś miłuje świat, nie ma w nim miłości Ojca. Wszystko bowiem, co jest na świecie, a więc: pożądliwość ciała, pożądliwość oczu i pycha tego życia pochodzi nie od Ojca, lecz od świata. Świat zaś przemija, a z nim jego pożądliwość; kto zaś wypełnia wolę Bożą, ten trwa na wieki.

Friulian (Bibie par un popul): No stait a volêi ben al mont ni a lis robis dal mont! Se un i vûl ben al mont, l’amôr dal Pari nol è in lui; parcè che dut ce che al è tal mont, la gole de cjar, la gole dai vôi e la supierbie de vite, nol ven dal Pari ma dal mont. E il mont al passe cun dute la sô gole; invezit chel che al fâs la volontât di Diu al reste par simpri.

Related: Si quis diligit mundum