Under consideration in this entry is the Friulian reading of Matthew 4:18. This entry takes such format: i) the Friulian wording, drawn from Bibie par un popul, is presented in its entirety; ii) this is followed by a translation into English directly from the Friulian; iii) next follow language notes on the Friulian wording; iv) finally, the English Douay and the Latin Vulgate readings of this same verse are provided for the reader’s reference.
Vanzeli seont Matieu 4,18
(Bibie par un popul)
Cjaminant ad ôr dal mâr di Galilee, Jesù al viodè doi fradis, Simon clamât Pieri e Andree so fradi: a jerin daûr a butâ lis rêts tal mâr; di fat a jerin pescjadôrs.
Translation of the text from Friulian to English
Cjaminant ad ôr (in walking at the edge) dal mâr di Galilee (of the sea of Galilee), Jesù al viodè doi fradis (Jesus saw two brethren), Simon clamât Pieri (Simon, called Peter) e Andree so fradi (and Andrew his brother): a jerin daûr (they were engaged) a butâ lis rêts tal mâr (in casting their nets into the sea); di fat a jerin pescjadôrs (for they were fishermen).
Language notes on the Friulian
The Friulian infinitive cjaminâ means to walk; cjaminant, meaning in walking, is its present participle. For the student’s information, following is the present indicative of this verb: o cjamini (I walk; first-person singular); tu cjaminis (thou walkest; second-person singular); al cjamine (he/it walketh; masculine, third-person singular); e cjamine (she/it walketh; feminine, third-person singular); o cjaminìn (we walk; first-person plural); o cjaminais (you walk; second-person plural); a cjaminin (they walk; third-person plural).
The masculine noun ôr means edge. It identifies the extremity of a thing, such as the edge of a table, of a vessel (as in rim), of a garment (as in hem), of a page (as in margin), and so on, or, as is the case in the context of the verse under review, the land running alongside a body of water, as in bank, shore. Ad ôr dal mâr is read at the edge of the sea; mâr is a masculine noun meaning sea, whereas dal is the contraction of the preposition di (of) and the masculine singular definite article il (the). Other instances of ad ôr from Holy Scripture include: ad ôr dal cjamp (at the edge of the field; Gjenesi 49,32); ad ôr dal desert (at the edge of the desert; Esodo 13,20); ad ôr dal campament (at the edge of the encampment; 2 Rês 7,8).
The infinitive viodi is Friulian for to see. In the simple past, this takes the following forms: o viodei (I saw; first-person singular); tu vioderis (thou sawest; second-person singular); al viodè (he/it saw; masculine, third-person singular); e viodè (she/it saw; feminine, third-person singular); o vioderin (we saw; first-person plural); o vioderis (you saw; second-person plural); a vioderin (they saw; third-person plural). Jesù (or the variant Gjesù) is masculine, third-person singular, wherefore the Friulian for Jesus saw, in the simple past, is Jesù al viodè (or Gjesù al viodè).
The Friulian for brother is the masculine noun fradi; in the plural, it takes the form fradis (brethren or brothers). Consider: un fradi (one brother); doi fradis (two brethren); trê fradis (three brethren); cuatri fradis (four brethren); cinc fradis (five brethren); sîs fradis (six brethren); siet fradis (seven brethren); vot fradis (eight brethren); nûf fradis (nine brethren); dîs fradis (ten brethren). The Friulian, then, for Jesus saw two brethren, employing the simple past, is Jesù al viodè doi fradis (or Gjesù al viodè doi fradis). The student will note that un and doi are masculine forms; their feminine equivalents are une and dôs, so that, for instance, one sister is une sûr, and two sisters is dôs sûrs.
The definite article is normally employed before the Friulian possessive adjective, with the definite article and possessive adjective agreeing in gender and number with the noun. Consider: il gno libri (my book); i miei libris (my books); la mê cjase (my house); lis mês cjasis (my houses); il to paron (thy master); i tiei parons (thy masters); la tô citât (thy city); lis tôs citâts (thy cities); il so libri (his/her book); i siei libris (his/her books); la sô cjase (his/her house); lis sôs cjasis (his/her houses); il nestri paron (our master); i nestris parons (our masters); la nestre citât (our city); lis nestris citâts (our cities); il vuestri libri (your book); i vuestris libris (your books); la vuestre cjase (your house); lis vuestris cjasis (your houses); il lôr paron (their master); i lôr parons (their masters); la lôr citât (their city); lis lôr citâts (their cities). The reader will note that lôr, unlike the other possessive adjectives, never changes form. Before the names of family members, the definite article is omitted: gno pari (my father); tô mari (thy mother); so fradi (his/her brother); sô sûr (his/her sister); nestri barbe (our uncle); vuestre agne (your aunt); lôr fi (their son); however, the definite article reappears in the plural: i miei fîs (my sons); lis tôs fiis (thy daughters); i siei fradis (his/her brethren); lis sôs sûrs (his/her sisters); i nestris barbis (our uncles). The definite article is not omitted before the Friulian for husband and wife: il gno om (my husband); la tô femine (thy wife).
The infinitive clamâ is Friulian for to call; its past participle is clamât (called). This past participle takes four different forms: clamât (masculine singular); clamâts (masculine plural); clamade (feminine singular); clamadis (feminine plural). Examples: Simon clamât Pieri (Simon, called Peter); ducj i oms a son clamâts a partecipâ (all men are called to participate); une femine clamade Julie (a woman called Julie); chestis feminis a son stadis clamadis (these women have been called).
The infinitive butâ means to cast. In the text of this verse, the reader finds, in infinitive form, jessi daûr a butâ, which conveys the sense of to be engaged in casting, to be occupied casting, to be busy casting, to be in the process of casting. Jessi daûr a, followed by an infinitive, emphasises the in-progress nature of an action. Consider: a butavin (they were casting); a jerin daûr a butâ (they were engaged in casting). A jerin is the imperfect, third-person plural of jessi (to be); as for daûr, this is Friulian for behind, after. In this way, a jerin daûr a butâ translates literally from the Friulian as they were behind casting, where to be ‘behind’ an action is to be occupied therewith. So does jessi conjugate in the imperfect: o jeri (I was; first-person singular); tu jeris (thou wast; second-person singular); al jere (he was; masculine, third-person singular); e jere (she was; feminine, third-person singular); o jerin (we were; first-person plural); o jeris (you were; second-person plural); a jerin (they were; third-person plural).
The feminine noun rêt is Friulian for net; its plural form is rêts. Butâ une rêt, then, is Friulian for to cast a net. Mâr is a masculine noun meaning sea; this is preceded in the text by tal, which is the contraction of the preposition in (in) and the masculine definite article il (the). Tal, in this context, is read into the, for movement is implied by employment of the verb butâ (to cast). In other contexts, tal may take the reading in the (locative), with no movement implied. Consider, for instance, that lis stelis a son tal cîl (locative) is Friulian for the stars are in the sky, and cjalâ sù tal cîl (movement) means to look up into the sky.
The text of this verse employs a jerin daûr a butâ lis rêts tal mâr (they were engaged in casting their nets into the sea). The reader will note that the Friulian equivalent of their nets (lis lôr rêts) is in fact not used in the text; however, the Friulian definite article often assumes the force of a possessive adjective, so that, in this context, lis rêts (literally, the nets) may be read their nets. Di fat is read for. As for the masculine noun pescjadôr, this means fisherman. Di fat a jerin pescjadôrs, then, is read for they were fishermen. Related to pescjadôr is the following Friulian vocabulary: il pes (fish); pescjâ (to fish); lâ a pescjâ (to go fishing).
The Holy Gospel according to St Matthew 4:18
And Jesus walking by the sea of Galilee saw two brethren, Simon who is called Peter and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea (for they were fishers).
Evangelium secundum Matthaeum 4,18
Ambulans autem Iesus iuxta mare Galilaeae, vidit duos fratres, Simonem, qui vocatur Petrus, et Andream fratrem eius, mittentes rete in mare (erant enim piscatores),