Friulian language lessons, book I

In this first book, the student will find lessons and exercises which he may use to begin learning the Friulian language on his own. In the second book, sentences drawn from the Holy Bible are annotated with grammar and vocabulary notes, that the student may further his understanding of the Friulian language.

Contents

With highest recommendation for supplementary study: Friulian lectors to the astounding number of 1127 came together to read aloud every chapter of the Bible; all readings were recorded and put online, for the benefit of Friulians everywhere. The student may listen to the readings in Friulian and follow along with the Friulian text.

Lesson I

The Friulian demonstrative adjective chest means this. It takes four different forms: chest (this; masculine singular); chescj (these; masculine plural); cheste (this; feminine singular); chestis (these; feminine plural). Consider these examples: chest om (this man); chescj oms (these men); cheste femine (this woman); chestis feminis (these women). Om (man) is a masculine singular noun, wherefore the masculine singular chest is employed to say this man in Friulian: chest om. Oms (men) is a masculine plural noun, wherefore the masculine plural chescj is employed to say these men in Friulian: chescj oms. Femine (woman) is a feminine singular noun, wherefore the feminine singular cheste is employed to say this woman in Friulian: cheste femine. Feminis (women) is a feminine plural noun, wherefore the feminine plural chestis is employed to say these women in Friulian: chestis feminis.

EXERCISES. 1-Use the correct form of chest with the following nouns, all of which are masculine singular and plural: libri, libris (book; books); barcon, barcons (window, windows); fâr, fârs (lighthouse, lighthouses); pari, paris (father, fathers); fradi, fradis (brother, brothers). 2-Use the correct form of chest with the following nouns, all are of which are feminine singular or plural: scarpe, scarpis (shoe, shoes); stele, stelis (star, stars); robe, robis (thing, things); mari, maris (mother, mothers); sûr, sûrs (sister, sisters).

ANSWERS. 1-chest libri, chescj libris (this book, these books); chest barcon, chescj barcons (this window, these windows); chest fâr, chescj fârs (this lighthouse, these lighthouses); chest pari, chescj paris (this father, these fathers); chest fradi, chescj fradis (this brother, these brothers). 2-cheste scarpe, chestis scarpis (this shoe, these shoes); cheste stele, chestis stelis (this star, these stars); cheste robe, chestis robis (this thing, these things); cheste mari, chestis maris (this mother, these mothers); cheste sûr, chestis sûrs (this sister, these sisters).

Lesson II

The Friulian for the third-person singular is takes two different forms: al è (masculine); e je (feminine). The third-person plural are takes but one form: a son (masculine and feminine). The student is now able to form such utterances in Friulian: chest om al è (this man is); chescj oms a son (these men are); cheste femine e je (this woman is); chestis feminis a son (these women are). Friulian employs a mandatory, atonic pronoun: in al è, the atonic pronoun is al (masculine singular), whereas the verb is è; in e je, the atonic pronoun is e (feminine singular), whereas the verb is je; in a son, the atonic pronoun is a (masculine and feminine plural), whereas the verb is son.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: this book is; these books are; this window is; these windows are; this lighthouse is; these lighthouses are; this father is; these fathers are; this brother is; these brothers are. 2-Translate to Friulian: this shoe is; these shoes are; this star is; these stars are; this thing is; these things are; this mother is; these mothers are; this sister is; these sisters are.

ANSWERS. 1-chest libri al è; chescj libris a son; chest barcon al è; chescj barcons a son; chest fâr al è; chescj fârs a son; chest pari al è; chescj paris a son; chest fradi al è; chescj fradis a son. 2-cheste scarpe e je; chestis scarpis a son; cheste stele e je; chestis stelis a son; cheste robe e je; chestis robis a son; cheste mari e je; chestis maris a son; cheste sûr e je; chestis sûrs a son.

Lesson III

Friulian adjectives come in four forms; take, for instance, the adjective devot (devout), whose four forms are: devot (masculine singular); devots (masculine plural); devote (feminine singular); devotis (feminine plural). The student is now able to form such utterances in Friulian: chest om al è devot (this man is devout); chescj oms a son devots (these men are devout); cheste femine e je devote (this woman is devout); chestis feminis a son devotis (these women are devout). The negated form of al è is nol è; the negated form of e je is no je; the negated form of a son is no son. Consider the following examples: chest om nol è devot (this man is not devout); chescj oms no son devots (these men are not devout); cheste femine no je devote (this woman is not devout); chestis feminis no son devotis (these women are not devout). Learn the following Friulian adjectives before completing the exercises: zovin (young); viert (open); stret (tight).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: this father is young; these fathers are young; this mother is young; these mothers are young; this window is open; these windows are open; this shoe is tight; these shoes are tight. 2-Negate all Friulian translations from the foregoing exercise.

ANSWERS. 1-chest pari al è zovin; chescj paris a son zovins; cheste mari e je zovine; chestis maris a son zovinis; chest barcon al è viert; chescj barcons a son vierts; cheste scarpe e je strete; chestis scarpis a son stretis. 2-chest pari nol è zovin; chescj paris no son zovins; cheste mari no je zovine; chestis maris no son zovinis; chest barcon nol è viert; chescj barcons no son vierts; cheste scarpe no je strete; chestis scarpis no son stretis.

Lesson IV

The Friulian definite articles are: il, l’, i, la, lis; these are the equivalents of the English definite article the. The Friulian indefinite articles are: un, une; these are the equivalents of the English indefinite article a, an. Study the following examples, all of which use masculine nouns: un libri, il libri, i libris (a book, the book, the books); un barcon, il barcon, i barcons (a window, the window, the windows); un fâr, il fâr, i fârs (a lighthouse, the lighthouse, the lighthouses); un pari, il pari, i paris (a father, the father, the fathers); un fradi, il fradi, i fradis (a brother, the brother, the brothers). From the foregoing examples, the student will note that il and un are employed with masculine singular nouns, whereas i is employed with masculine plural ones. With a masculine singular noun beginning with a vowel, the definite article employed is not il but l’, as in the following examples: l’aiar (the air); l’eroi (the hero); l’imni (the anthem); l’om (the man); l’ûf (the egg). Consider now the following examples, all of which use feminine nouns: une femine, la femine, lis feminis (a woman, the woman, the women); une scarpe, la scarpe, lis scarpis (a shoe, the shoe, the shoes); une stele, la stele, lis stelis (a star, the star, the stars); une mari, la mari, lis maris (a mother, the mother, the mothers); une sûr, la sûr, lis sûrs (a sister, the sister, the sisters). From the foregoing examples, the student will note that la and une are employed with feminine singular nouns, whereas lis is employed with feminine plural ones.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the book is; the books are; the lighthouse is; the lighthouses are; the brother is; the brothers are; the man is; the men are; the egg is; the eggs are. 2-Translate to Friulian: the woman is; the women are; the shoe is; the shoes are; the star is; the stars are; the mother is; the mothers are; the sister is; the sisters are. 3-Translate to Friulian: a man is; a man is not; a father is; a father is not; a brother is; a brother is not; a mother is; a mother is not; a sister is; a sister is not. 4-Translate to Friulian: the men are devout; the men are not devout; the windows are open; the windows are not open; the shoes are tight; the shoes are not tight.

ANSWERS. 1-il libri al è; i libris a son; il fâr al è; i fârs a son; il fradi al è; i fradis a son; l’om al è; i oms a son; l’ûf al è; i ûfs a son. 2-la femine e je; lis feminis a son; la scarpe e je; lis scarpis a son; la stele e je; lis stelis a son; la mari e je; lis maris a son; la sûr e je; lis sûrs a son. 3-un om al è; un om nol è; un pari al è; un pari nol è; un fradi al è; un fradi nol è; une mari e je; une mari no je; une sûr e je; une sûr no je. 4-i oms a son devots; i oms no son devots; i barcons a son vierts; i barcons no son vierts; lis scarpis a son stretis; lis scarpis no son stretis.

Lesson V

The Friulian subject pronouns are: jo (I; first-person singular); tu (thou; second-person singular); lui (he; masculine, third-person singular); (she; feminine, third-person singular); nualtris (we; first-person plural); vualtris (you; second-person plural); lôr (they; third-person plural). Of nualtris, variants are noaltris and nô, whereas of vualtris, variants are voaltris and vô. Tu, which aligns with the traditional English use of singular thou (but is in no way outmoded in Friulian whatsoever), is used when addressing a single person on a familiar level, whereas vualtris, which aligns with the traditional English use of plural you, is used when addressing more than one person on a familiar level. All the foregoing pronouns are tonic: these are employed to give stress, otherwise they are customarily omitted; the atonic pronouns and the verb suffice to indicate which grammatical person is in question. The atonic pronouns are: o (first-person singular); tu (second-person singular), al (masculine, third-person singular), e (feminine, third-person singular), o (first-person plural), o (second-person plural), a (third-person plural). Study the present indicative of jessi (to be), also expressed in Friulian as sei, which, in the case of this verb, is irregular: jo o soi (I am); tu tu sês (thou art); lui al è (he is); jê e je (she is); nualtris o sin (we are); vualtris o sês (you are); lôr a son (they are). Now consider the following, taking note of the presence or absence of tonic pronouns: o soi furlan (I am Friulian); tu sês polac (thou art Polish); jo o soi furlan, ma tu tu sês polac (I am Friulian, but thou art Polish). Take another example: al è vieli (he is old); e je zovine (she is young); lui al è vieli, ma jê e je zovine (he is old, but she is young). Study the four forms of the adjective vieli (old) before completing the exercises: vieli (masculine singular); viele (feminine singular); viei (masculine plural); vielis (feminine plural).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I am old (male); thou art young (female); he is Friulian; she is Friulian; we are Friulian (mixed gender); you are old (females); they are devout (males). 2-Translate to Friulian: he is Polish, but she is Friulian; I am old, but thou art young (females); we are young, but you are old (males).

ANSWERS. 1-o soi vieli; tu sês zovine; al è furlan; e je furlane; o sin furlans; o sês vielis; a son devots. 2-lui al è polac, ma jê e je furlane; jo o soi viele, ma tu tu sês zovine; nualtris o sin zovins, ma vualtris o sês viei.

Lesson VI

To negate the present indicative forms of jessi provided in the foregoing lesson, the student need only omit the atonic pronoun and add no. The two exceptions to this rule are: in the second-person singular, where the atonic pronoun tu is maintained, with no taking its position before it; in the masculine, third-person singular, where the atonic pronoun al contracts with no to form nol. Study the following: jo o soi, jo no soi (I am, I am not); tu tu sês, tu no tu sês (thou art, thou art not); lui al è, lui nol è (he is, he is not); jê e je, jê no je (she is, she is not); nualtris o sin, nualtris no sin (we are, we are not); vualtris o sês, vualtris no sês (you are, you are not); lôr a son, lôr no son (they are, they are not). Given that the tonic pronouns are customarily omitted, all of the foregoing may also be expressed thus in Friulian: o soi, no soi (I am, I am not); tu sês, no tu sês (thou art, thou art not); al è, nol è (he is, he is not); e je, no je (she is, she is not); o sin, no sin (we are, we are not); o sês, no sês (you are, you are not); a son, no son (they are, they are not). Learn the four forms of the Friulian adjective for white before completing the exercises: blanc (masculine singular); blancs (masculine plural); blancje (feminine singular); blancjis (feminine plural).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the window is open; the window is not open; this man is devout; this man is not devout; these women are old; these women are not old; I am not old (female); thou art not young (male); he is not Friulian; she is not Polish; we are not young (males); you are not devout (females); they are not Friulian (mixed gender). 2-Translate to English: chestis feminis a son furlanis, ma chescj oms no son polacs; chescj paris a son viei, e chestis maris a son zovinis; chescj fârs a son blancs; chestis scarpis no son blancjis.

ANSWERS. 1-il barcon al è viert; il barcon nol è viert; chest om al è devot; chest om nol è devot; chestis feminis a son vielis; chestis feminis no son vielis; no soi viele; no tu sês zovin; nol è furlan; no je polache; no sin zovins; no sês devotis; no son furlans. 2-these women are Friulian, but these men are not Polish; these fathers are old, and these mothers are young; these lighthouses are white; these shoes are not white.

Lesson VII

As the student has by now come to know, Friulian adjectives take four forms. Consider, for instance, the adjective brut, meaning ugly; its four forms are: brut (masculine singular); bruts (masculine plural); brute (feminine singular); brutis (feminine plural). The student is now able to make such utterances in Friulian: chest om al è brut (this man is ugly); chescj oms no son bruts (these men are not ugly); cheste femine no je brute (this woman is not ugly); chestis feminis a son brutis (these women are ugly). Now take the adjective sant, meaning holy, whose four forms are: sant (masculine singular); sants (masculine plural); sante (feminine singular); santis (feminine plural). Consider the following examples, where the adjective modifies a noun: lûc sant (holy place); lûcs sants (holy places); robe sante (holy thing); robis santis (holy things).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: this place is holy; these places are not holy; this lighthouse is not ugly; these lighthouses are ugly; this thing is holy; these things are not holy; the man is Polish; these men are Polish; the woman is not Polish; these women are not Polish; young woman; young women; devout woman; devout women; devout man; devout men; open window; open windows. 2-Say whether the speaker is male or female: o soi furlane; o soi zovine; no soi brut; no soi devote; o soi vieli; o soi polache. 3-Provide as many of the four forms of these adjectives as possible, in the order of masculine singular, masculine plural, feminine singular and feminine plural, and learn the unknown forms from the answers: complet (complete); neri (black); vert (green); platât (hidden); trist (wicked); just (righteous); fedêl (faithful); leâl (loyal); religjôs (religious); regolâr (regular); irlandês (Irish).

ANSWERS. 1-chest lûc al è sant; chescj lûcs no son sants; chest fâr nol è brut; chescj fârs a son bruts; cheste robe e je sante; chestis robis no son santis; l’om al è polac; chescj oms a son polacs; la femine no je polache; chestis feminis no son polachis; femine zovine; feminis zovinis; femine devote; feminis devotis; om devot; oms devots; barcon viert; barcons vierts. 2-female; female; male; female; male; female. 3-complet, complets, complete, completis; neri, neris, nere, neris; vert, verts, verde, verdis; platât, platâts, platade, platadis; trist, triscj, triste, tristis; just, juscj, juste, justis; fedêl, fedêi, fedêl, fedêls; leâl, lêâi, leâl, leâls; religjôs, religjôs, religjose, religjosis; regolâr, regolârs, regolâr, regolârs; irlandês, irlandês, irlandese, irlandesis.

Lesson VIII

The Friulian demonstrative adjective chel means that. It takes four different forms: chel (that; masculine singular); chei (those; masculine plural); chê (that; feminine singular); chês (those; feminine plural). Consider these examples: chel om (that man); chei oms (those men); chê femine (that woman); chês feminis (those women).

EXERCISES. 1-Use the correct form of chel with the following nouns, all of which are masculine singular and plural: fantat, fantats (lad, lads); pancôr, pancôrs (baker, bakers); predi, predis (priest, priests); pît, pîts (foot, feet); cunfin, cunfins (border, borders). 2-Use the correct form of chel with the following nouns, all are of which are feminine singular and plural: tiere, tieris (land, lands); spade, spadis (sword, swords); man, mans (hand, hands); cjase, cjasis (house, houses); citât, citâts (city, cities). 3-Translate to Friulian: that lighthouse is not ugly; those lighthouses are white; those priests are devout; that house is white; those women are young; those lands are Irish; this man is Friulian, but that woman is Polish.

ANSWERS. 1-chel fantat, chei fantats (that lad, those lads); chel pancôr, chei pancôrs (that baker, those bakers); chel predi, chei predis (that priest, those priests); chel pît, chei pîts (that foot, those feet); chel cunfin, chei cunfins (that border, those borders). 2-chê tiere, chês tieris (that land, those lands); chê spade, chês spadis (that sword, those swords); chê man, chês mans (that hand, those hands); chê cjase, chês cjasis (that house, those houses); chê citât, chês citâts (that city, those cities). 3-chel fâr nol è brut; chei fârs a son blancj; chei predis a son devots; chê cjase e je blancje; chês feminis a son zovinis; chês tieris a son irlandesis; chest om al è furlan, ma chê femine e je polache.

Lesson IX

Learn to count from nought to ten in Friulian: zero (0), un (1), doi (2), trê (3), cuatri (4), cinc (5), sîs (6), siet (7), vot (8), nûf (9), dîs (10). Of these, only un and doi are specifically masculine forms; their feminine equivalents are une and dôs. For instance, we speak in Friulian of un fâr (one lighthouse), but une spade (one sword); and we speak of doi fârs (two lighthouses), but dôs spadis (two swords), given that fâr is a masculine noun and spade is a feminine one. The other numerals may used with either a masculine or feminine noun: trê oms (three men), trê feminis (three women), cuatri fradis (four brothers), cuatri sûrs (four sisters), and so on.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: one man; one woman; two priests; two cities; three lads; three houses; four borders; four things; five places; five sisters; six brothers; six mothers; seven fathers; seven stars; eight books; eight shoes; nine windows; nine lands; ten eggs; ten hands. 2-Translate to Friulian: these two books; these two women; those three brothers; those three houses; these five priests are Friulian; those seven things are holy; those ten Irish lads are righteous.

ANSWERS. 1-un om; une femine; doi predis; dôs citâts; trê fantats; trê cjasis; cuatri cunfins; cuatri robis; cinc lûcs; cinc sûrs; sîs fradis; sîs maris; siet paris; siet stelis; vot libris; vot scarpis; nûf barcons; nûf tieris; dîs ûfs; dîs mans. 2-chescj doi libris; chestis dôs feminis; chei trê fradis; chês trê cjasis; chescj cinc predis a son furlans; chês siet robis a son santis; chei dîs fantats irlandês a son juscj.

Lesson X

Study the present indicative of (to have), which, in the case of this verb, is irregular: jo o ài (I have); tu tu âs (thou hast); lui al à (he has); jê e à (she has); nualtris o vin (we have); vualtris o vês (you have); lôr a àn (they have). Consider a number of examples: o vin une mari devote (we have a devout mother); al à dôs cjasis (he has two houses); e à trê fradis (she has three brothers). Nissun is the equivalent of the English any in negated sentences, with nissune for feminine form: no ài nissun fradi (I have not any brother); no tu âs nissun libri (thou hast not any book); nol à nissune sûr (he has not any sister); no àn nissune cjase (they have not any house). In English, one speaks of being hungry or thirsty; in Friulian, one speaks rather of having hunger or thirst. Consider the following: o ài fan (I am hungry; literally, I have hunger); o ài sêt (I am thirsty; literally, I have thirst). Both fan (hunger) and sêt (thirst) are masculine nouns.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I have six brothers; thou hast not any sister; he has not any brother; she has not any book; you have a white house; he is hungry; you are thirsty; thou art not hungry; they are not thirsty. 2-Say whether nissun or nissune is to be employed with the following nouns: fâr; barcon; predi; stele; ûf; citât.

ANSWERS. 1-o ài sîs fradis; no tu âs nissune sûr; nol à nissun fradi; no à nissun libri; o vês une cjase blancje; al à fan; o vês sêt; no tu âs fan; no àn sêt. 2-nissun; nissun; nissun; nissune; nissun; nissune.

Lesson XI

In the interrogative, Friulian shifts the atonic pronoun to the end of the verb. Consider first the interrogative of jessi, present indicative: o soi; soio? (I am; am I?); tu sês; sêstu? (thou art; art thou?); al è; isal? (he is; is he?); e je; ise? (she is; is she?); o sin; sino? (we are; are we?); o sês; sêso? (you are; are you?); a son; sono? (they are; are they?). Of isal and ise, variants are esal and ese. A number of examples: sêstu religjôs? (art thou religious?); isal furlan? (is he Friulian?); sêso irlandesis? (are you Irishwomen?); sono triscj? (are they wicked?). Consider now the interrogative of vê, present indicative: o ài; aio? (I have; have I?); tu âs; âstu? (thou hast; hast thou?); al à; aial? (he has; has he?); e à; aie? (she has; has she?); o vin; vino? (we have; have we?); o vês; vêso? (you have; have you?); a àn; àno? (they have; have they?). A number of examples: aial une sûr? (has he a sister?); no àno nissune cjase? (have they not any house?); âstu sêt? (art thou thirsty?; literally, hast thou thirst?).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to English: aio un fradi?; àno fan?; sêstu polac?; isal viert il barcon?; ise blancje la cjase?; sono juscj chei fantats talians? 2-Translate to Friulian: hast thou not any brother?; has this city no holy place?; are those two Friulian sisters devout?; are those three Italian brothers thirsty?

ANSWERS. 1-have I a brother?; are they hungry?; art thou Polish?; is the window open?; is the house white?; are those Italian lads righteous? 2-no âstu nissun fradi?; no aie cheste citât nissun lûc sant?; sono devotis chês dôs sûrs furlanis?; àno sêt chei trê fradis talians?

Lesson XII

The Friulian fevelâ means to speak. In the present indicative, it takes the following conjugation (tonic pronouns have been omitted): o feveli (I speak); tu fevelis (thou speakest); al fevele (he speaks); e fevele (she speaks); o fevelìn (we speak); o fevelais (you speak); a fevelin (they speak). The student is to take note of the verb endings for each person, which is to say -i; -is; -e; -e; -ìn; -ais; -in; these endings are employed with regular verbs whose infinitive ends in -â, such as fevelâ (to speak), copâ (to kill) and scoltâ (to listen). In the matter of pronunciation, the first-person plural fevelìn is pronounced with stress on the final syllable, whereas the third-person plural fevelin is pronounced with stress on the penultimate. Learn the following: fevelâ furlan (to speak Friulian); fevelâ par furlan (to speak in Friulian); jessi bon di fevelâ furlan (to be able to speak Friulian; literally, to be good at speaking Friulian). Bon is an adjective meaning good; its four forms are: bon (masculine singular); bogns (masculine plural); buine (feminine singular); buinis (feminine plural). Learn also: simpri (always, ever).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I speak Friulian; thou speakest Friulian; he speaks Friulian; she speaks Friulian; we speak Friulian; you speak Friulian; they speak Friulian. 2-Negate all translations from the foregoing exercise. 3-Translate to Friulian: dost thou speak Friulian?; does he speak Friulian?; does she speak Friulian?; do you speak Friulian?; do they speak Friulian? 4-Translate to Friulian, using male forms of adjective: I am able to speak Friulian; thou art not able to speak Friulian; is he able to speak Friulian?; we are not able to speak Friulian; are you able to speak Friulian?; they are not able to speak Friulian. 5-Translate to Friulian, using female forms of adjective: she is able to speak Friulian; is she able to speak Friulian?; is she not able to speak Friulian?; are you not able to speak Friulian?; they are not able to speak Friulian. 6-Translate to Friulian: I always speak in Friulian; do I always speak in Friulian?; does he always speak in Friulian?; do we not always speak in Friulian?; they do not always speak in Friulian. 7-Translate to Friulian: I kill; thou killest not; he listens; he listens not; she listens not; we kill; you kill; they listen not.

ANSWERS. 1-o feveli furlan; tu fevelis furlan; al fevele furlan; e fevele furlan; o fevelìn furlan; o fevelais furlan; a fevelin furlan. 2-no feveli furlan; no tu fevelis furlan; nol fevele furlan; no fevele furlan; no fevelìn furlan; no fevelais furlan; no fevelin furlan. 3-fevelistu furlan?; fevelial furlan?; fevelie furlan?; fevelaiso furlan?; fevelino furlan? 4-o soi bon di fevelâ furlan; no tu sês bon di fevelâ furlan; isal bon di fevelâ furlan?; no sin bogns di fevelâ furlan; sêso bogns di fevelâ furlan?; no son bogns di fevelâ furlan. 5-e je buine di fevelâ furlan; ise buine di fevelâ furlan?; no ise buine di fevelâ furlan?; no sêso buinis di fevelâ furlan?; no son buinis di fevelâ furlan. 6-o feveli simpri par furlan; fevelio simpri par furlan?; fevelial simpri par furlan?; no fevelìno simpri par furlan?; no fevelin simpri par furlan. 7-o copi; no tu copis; al scolte; nol scolte; no scolte; o copìn; o copais; no scoltin.

Lesson XIII

The Friulian capî means to understand. The student will note that it takes its ending in -î, unlike the infinitives encountered in the last lesson, which end in -â; it is for this reason that capî conjugates differently to fevelâ, copâ and scoltâ. In the present indicative, capî takes the following conjugation: o capìs (I understand); tu capissis (thou understandest); al capìs (he understands); e capìs (she understands); o capìn (we understand); o capîs (you understand); a capissin (they understand). Consider now the following: o capìs; lu capìs; no lu capìs (I understand; I understand it; I understand it not); tu capissis; tu lu capissis; no tu lu capissis (thou understandest; thou understandest it; thou understandest it not). Names of languages: il furlan (Friulian); il talian (Italian); il polac (Polish); l’inglês (English); il rus (Russian).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: do I understand Friulian?; dost thou understand Italian?; does he understand Polish?; does she understand English?; do we understand Russian?; do you understand Friulian?; do they understand Italian? 2-he understands it and speaks it; he does not understand it and does not speak it; she understands it but does not speak it; I do not understand it and do not speak it; we understand it but do not speak it; they understand it and speak it; they do not speak it but do understand it.

ANSWERS. 1-il furlan lu capissio?; il talian lu capissistu?; il polac lu capissial?; l’inglês lu capissie?; il rus lu capìno?; il furlan lu capîso?; il talian lu capissino? 2-lu capìs e lu fevele; no lu capìs e no lu fevele; lu capìs ma no lu fevele; no lu capìs e no lu feveli; lu capìn ma no lu fevelìn; lu capissin e lu fevelin; no lu fevelin ma lu capissin.

Lesson XIV

The student is reminded that means to have; when this is followed by di and an infinitive, sense of obligation is conveyed. In this way, the Friulian vê di aligns with the English to have to. Consider these examples: o ài di fevelâ (I have to speak; I must speak); al à di scoltâ (he has to listen; he must listen); o vin di capî (we have to understand; we must understand). Learn the following: lavorâ (to work); studiâ (to study); lâ vie (to leave); restâ (to remain). In the case of lâ vie, the student will note that means to go, whereas vie means away; taken together, lâ vie means to leave. Learn also: la lenghe (language); cumò (now).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I have to work; thou hast to study; he has to leave; she has to remain; we have to work; you have to study; they have to leave. 2-Translate to Friulian: have I now to work?; hast thou now to study?; has he now to leave?; has she now to remain?; have we now to work?; have you now to study?; have they now to leave? 3-Translate to Friulian: I have not to remain; thou hast not work; he has not to study; she has not to leave; we have not to remain; you have not to work; they have not to study. 4-Translate to Friulian: I must study this language; thou must remain in this city; these five Irish lads must leave; must you speak in Friulian?; must they not understand this language?; thou must not listen to that man.

ANSWERS. 1-o ài di lavorâ; tu âs di studiâ; al à di lâ vie; e à di restâ; o vin di lavorâ; o vês di studiâ; a àn di lâ vie. 2-aio cumò di lavorâ?; âstu cumò di studiâ?; aial cumò di lâ vie?; aie cumò di restâ?; vino cumò di lavorâ?; vêso cumò di studiâ?; àno cumò di lâ vie? 3-no ài di restâ; no tu âs di lavorâ; nol à di studiâ; no à di lâ vie; no vin di restâ; no vês di lavorâ; no àn di studiâ. 4-o ài di studiâ cheste lenghe; tu âs di restâ in cheste citât; chescj cinc fantats irlandês a àn di lâ vie; vêso di fevelâ par furlan?; no àno di capî cheste lenghe?; no tu âs di scoltâ chel om.

Lesson XV

Finî, meaning to finish, takes its conjugation in the present indicative after the manner of capî, seen at lesson XIII. Learn it now: o finìs (I finish); tu finissis (thou finishest); al finìs (he finishes); e finìs (she finishes); o finìn (we finish); o finîs (you finish); a finissin (they finish). The Friulian for year is the masculine noun an; in the plural, it takes the form agns (years), so that, for instance, one year is un an, and two years is doi agns. Learn: cuant? (when?); vuê (today); finî i agns (to be one’s birthday; literally, to finish the years).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: today is his birthday; today is her birthday; today is his eighth birthday; today is her ninth birthday; when is my birthday?; when is thy birthday?; when is his birthday?; when is her third birthday? 2-Translate to Friulian: I finish at four; he finishes at three; she finishes at seven; we finish at two; do they finish at five?; do you not finish today at eight?; when dost thou finish?; when do they finish? 3-Recite the present indicative conjugation of fevelâ, scoltâ, capî, finî. 4-Negate the present indicative conjugation of finî.

ANSWERS. 1-vuê al finìs i agns; vuê e finìs i agns; vuê al finìs vot agns; vuê e finìs nûf agns; cuant finissio i agns?; cuant finissistu i agns?; cuant finissial i agns? cuant finissie trê agns? 2-o finìs a cuatri; al finìs a trê; e finìs a siet; o finìn a dôs; finissino a cinc?; no finîso vuê a vot?; cuant finissistu?; cuant finissino? 3-fevelâ (see lesson XII); scoltâ (o scolti; tu scoltis; al scolte; e scolte; o scoltìn; o scoltais; a scoltin); capî (see lesson XIII); finî (see current lesson). 4-no finìs; no tu finissis; nol finìs; no finìs; no finìn; no finîs; no finissin.

Lesson XVI

The Friulian plasê means to be pleasing; this is a regular verb whose infinitive takes its ending in -ê, unlike the regular verbs encountered heretofore, whose infinitives have taken for ending or -î. Of plasê, study the present indicative conjugation: o plâs (I am pleasing); tu plasis (thou art pleasing); al plâs (he is pleasing, it is pleasing); e plâs (she is pleasing, it is pleasing); o plasìn (we are pleasing); o plasês (you are pleasing); a plasin (they are pleasing). Study also these indirect object pronouns: mi (to me); ti (to thee); i (to him, to her, to it); nus (to us); us (to you); ur (to them). Consider now these examples of use: al plâs; ur plâs (it is pleasing; it is pleasing to them); a plasin; mi plasin (they are pleasing; they are pleasing to me); a plasin; no ti plasin (they are pleasing; they are not pleasing to thee); mi plâs chest libri (this book is pleasing to me, which is to say, I like this book); no i plâs chê musiche (that music is not pleasing to him, which is to say, he does not like that music); ur plasin chestis dôs citâts (these two cities are pleasing to them, which is to say, they like these two cities).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I like this house; dost thou like that lighthouse?; he does not like these shoes; John likes not these shoes; Mary likes those white shoes; does Matthew like those lighthouses?; Mark likes this sword; does Mark like these swords?; we like to speak when we work; do they like this city?; do they like that book?; art thou speaking to me in Slovene?; I am not speaking to thee in Slovene, but in Friulian.

ANSWERS. 1-mi plâs cheste cjase; ti plasial chel fâr?; no i plasin chestis scarpis; no i plasin chestis scarpis a Zuan; i plasin chês scarpis blancjis a Marie; i plasino chei fârs a Matieu?; i plâs cheste spade a Marc; i plasino chestis spadis a Marc?; nus plâs fevelâ cuant che o lavorìn; ur plasie cheste citât?; ur plasial chel libri?; mi fevelistu par sloven?; no ti feveli par sloven, ma par furlan.

Lesson XVII

Savê is Friulian for to know; this is an irregular verb, wherefore it follows not the conjugation model of plasê encountered at the last lesson. Study its present indicative conjugation: o sai (I know); tu sâs (thou knowest); al sa (he knows); e sa (she knows); o savìn (we know); o savês (you know); a san (they know). Learn the following new vocabulary: doman (tomorrow); il siopar (strike); ben (well); cualchidun (anyone, someone); ce (what); (to do); (to say, to tell). The student will heed the pronunciation note provided after the answers below.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I know that today is thy birthday; I know that tomorrow there is a strike; I know that this book is good; thou knowest not what thou hast; knowest thou that those lads are Irish?; knowest thou not that these women are devout?; he knows how to speak well; he knows how to speak two languages; does anyone know that Luke is able to speak Latin?; she knows well that I have not any brother; we know not what to do; we know not what to tell thee; you know what it is and what you have to do; they know not what to tell me; know they not what to tell you?; those two Polish lads know not well what they have to tell us.

ANSWERS. 1-o sai che vuê tu finissis i agns; o sai che doman al è un siopar; o sai che al è bon chest libri; no tu sâs ce che tu âs; sâstu che a son irlandês chei fantats?; no sâstu che a son devotis chestis feminis?; al sa fevelâ ben; al sa fevelâ dôs lenghis; cualchidun saial che Luche al è bon di fevelâ latin?; e sa ben che no ài nissun fradi; no savìn ce fâ; no savìn ce dîti; o savês ce che al è e ce che o vês di fâ; no san ce dîmi; no sano ce dîus?; chei doi fantats polacs no san ben ce che a àn di dînus. Pronunciation note: In speech, che al contracts to ch’al (sounds like kal); che a contracts to ch’a (sounds like ka); che o contracts to ch’o (sounds like ko). For instance, o sai che al è bon is pronounced not in six syllables but five: o sai ch’al è bon.

Lesson XVIII

Cui is Friulian for who. Consider: cui sêstu? (who art thou?); cui isal? (who is he?); cui ise? (who is she?). In the foregoing examples, the interrogative form of verb is employed with the interrogative cui. This same effect, as the student has already encountered, does the interrogative cuant have on the verb: cuant finissial i agns? (when is his birthday?); cuant fevelistu par furlan? (when speakest thou in Friulian?). When cui and cuant are employed as relative pronouns, they are followed rather by che, without the interrogative form of verb, for it is no longer matter of a question: mi plâs fevelâ cuant che o lavori (I like to speak when I work); no sai cui che al è (I know not who he is). New vocabulary: il cjaliâr (shoemaker); il becjâr (butcher); cun (with).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: who is that shoemaker?; knowest thou who that shoemaker is?; who are those butchers?; I know not who those butchers are; when have you to speak in Friulian?; when is it that you must speak in English?; when must that lad to listen to these men?; who is it that must speak with this monk?; I know not who thou art; thou knowest not who thou art; who are those who understand this language?; we know not who those men are who understand this language; he who is Friulian speaks in Friulian.

ANSWERS. 1-cui isal chel cjaliâr?; sâstu cui che al è chel cjaliâr?; cui sono chei becjârs?; no sai cui che a son chei becjârs; cuant vêso di fevelâ par furlan?; cuant isal che o vês di fevelâ par inglês?; cuant aial chel fantat di scoltâ chescj oms?; cui isal che al à di fevelâ cun chest munic?; no sai cui che tu sês; no tu sâs cui che tu sês; cui sono chei che a capissin cheste lenghe?; no savìn cui che a son chei oms che a capissin cheste lenghe; cui che al è furlan al fevele par furlan.

Lesson XIX

Learn the following, some of which the student has already encountered: ce (what), cemût (how), cuant (when), cui (who), dulà (where), parcè (why), trop (how much, how many). Of dulà, variants are and indulà. Trop knows four different forms: trop (masculine singular); trops (masculine plural), trope (feminine singular); tropis (feminine plural); the masculine plural trops is pronounced without the p. The Friulian tasê means to keep quiet; its conjugation follows that of plasê; study it now, in its present indicative form: o tâs (I keep quiet); tu tasis (thou keepest quiet); al tâs (he keeps quiet); e tâs (she keeps quiet); o tasìn (we keep quiet); o tasês (you keep quiet); a tasin (they keep quiet). A number of new vocabulary items have been incorporated into the exercises for the student to learn.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: why keepest thou quiet?; why does that lad not keep quiet?; what hast thou that thou keepest quiet?; who are those monks who keep quiet?; how is it possible?; when is it that I am to keep quiet?; where is it that we must listen to that man?; of these French lighthouses how many do you like?; of those women how many are Irish?; of these Canadian priests how many are they who speak Latin?; how much milk must I buy? 2-Translate to Friulian: I know not why I speak so; I know why those two women keep quiet like that; they know not how it is possible; I understand where it is that I am to speak in Friulian; John knows not what he is to do; I know how important it is; we know how many Friulians they are who speak Friulian; you know not who I am; they understand me well when I speak in Friulian; of these women we know not how many they are who speak Polish.

ANSWERS. 1-parcè tasistu?; parcè no tasial chel fantat?; ce âstu che tu tasis?; cui sono chei munics che a tasin?; cemût isal pussibil?; cuant isal che o ài di tasê?; dulà isal che o vin di scoltâ chel om?; di chescj fârs francês trops us plasino?; di chês feminis tropis sono irlandesis?; di chescj predis canadês trops sono che a fevelin latin?; trop lat aio di comprâ? 2-no sai parcè che o feveli cussì; o sai parcè che a tasin cussì chês dôs feminis; no san cemût che al è pussibil; o capìs dulà che al è che o ài di fevelâ par furlan; Zuan nol sa ce che al à di fâ; o sai trop che al è impuartant; o savìn trops furlans che a son che a fevelin furlan; vualtris no savês cui che o soi; lôr mi capissin ben cuant che o feveli par furlan; di chestis feminis no savìn tropis che a son che a fevelin polac.

Lesson XX

Viodi is Friulian for to see. The student will note that this infinitive ends in -i, and not in the accented of, for instance, finî and capî. Whereas with finî and capî the stress falls on the final syllable, the stress in viodi falls on the penultimate. Now to its present indicative conjugation: o viôt (I see); tu viodis (thou seest); al viôt (he sees); e viôt (she sees); o viodìn (we see); o viodês (you see); a viodin (they see). When viodi is followed by di, the meaning becomes one of to take care of, to see to. Compare: il vuardean al viôt il fâr (the guardian sees the lighthouse); il vuardean al viôt dal fâr (the guardian takes care of the lighthouse). In the foregoing example, di (of, from) has contracted with the masculine singular il to form dal. Of di, learn the four contractions: dal (di + masculine singular il); dai (di + masculine plural i); de (di + feminine singular la); des (di + feminine plural lis). Study these examples: il muini; dal muini (the sacristan; of the sacristan); i muinis; dai muinis (the sacristans; of the sacristans); la glesie; de glesie (the church; of the church); lis glesiis; des glesiis (the churches; of the churches).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I see those two men; seest thou the stars?; seest thou that thou understandest not?; how does he see the situation?; why do we not see the stars?; see you that we are thirsty?; whom see you with that priest?; what do they see now? 2-Translate to Friulian: that guardian takes care of the border; those guardians take care of the lighthouses; this sacristan takes care of the church; these sacristans take care of the churches; who are those who see to the houses?; that woman takes care of Mark’s father; we must see to this situation; these two shoemakers see to the shoes of the men of this city.

ANSWERS. 1-o viôt chei doi oms; viodistu lis stelis?; viodistu che no tu capissis?; cemût viodial la situazion?; parcè no viodìno lis stelis?; viodêso che o vin sêt?; cui viodêso cun chel predi?; ce viodino cumò? 2-chel vuardean al viôt dal cunfin; chei vuardeans a viodin dai fârs; chest muini al viôt de glesie; chescj muinis a viodin des glesiis; cui sono chei che a viodin des cjasis?; chê femine e viôt dal pari di Marc; o vin di viodi di cheste situazion; chescj doi cjaliârs a viodin des scarpis dai oms di cheste citât.

Lesson XXI

The Friulian meti means to put; its present indicative conjugation is: o met (I put); tu metis (thou puttest); al met (he puts); e met (she puts); o metìn (we put); o metês (you put); a metin (they put). At lesson XX, the student encountered the contractions of di; he will now consider the contractions of in, which is Friulian for in, into: tal (in + masculine singular il); tai (in + masculine plural i); te (in + feminine singular la); tes (in + feminine plural lis). Examples: il gjornâl; tal gjornâl (the newspaper; in the newspaper); i gjornâi; tai gjornâi (the newspapers; in the newspapers); la scjatule; te scjatule (the box; in the box); lis scjatulis; tes scjatulis (the boxes; in the boxes). Of these contractions, variants are: intal, intai, inte, intes, so that the following are also possible: intal gjornâl (in the newspaper); intai gjornâi (in the newspapers); inte scjatule (in the box); intes scjatulis (in the boxes). The preposition in moreover contracts with the indefinite articles to form intun (in + masculine singular un) and intune (in + feminine singular une), for instance: intun gjornâl (in a newspaper); intune scjatule (in a box). A few Friulian locutions employing the solitary in include: in veretât (in truth); in bataie (in battle); in buine fede (in good faith).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the white shoes are in the box; the lads are putting the books into the boxes; thou must put this Italian newspaper into the box; the monk is in the church; the sacristan is speaking in Friulian with the priest in the church; in truth these shoemakers understand well what they are to do; those French lads always speak in good faith; the righteous kill the wicked in battle; the monks keep quiet in the holy places. 2-Translate to Friulian: am I to put the newspapers into the boxes?; is the sacristan to take care of the things which are in the church?; does that baker work in this city?; does that Canadian guardian not work in this lighthouse?; are the Polish priests speaking in the church?; why puttest thou the sword into the hands of that wicked man?; must I put the shoes into a box?

ANSWERS. 1-lis scarpis blancjis a son te scjatule; i fantats a metin i libris tes scjatulis; tu âs di meti chest gjornâl talian te scjatule; il munic al è te glesie; il muini al fevele par furlan cul predi te glesie; in veretât chescj cjaliârs a capissin ben ce che a àn di fâ; chei fantats francês a fevelin simpri in buine fede; i juscj a copin i triscj in bataie; i munics a tasin tai lûcs sants. 2-aio di meti i gjornâi tes scjatulis?; aial il muini di viodi des robis che a son te glesie?; lavorial in cheste citât chel pancôr?; no lavorial in chest fâr chel vuardean canadês?; fevelino te glesie i predis polacs?; parcè metistu la spade tes mans di chel om trist?; aio di meti lis scarpis intune scjatule?

Lesson XXII

The Friulian for with is cun, which contracts with the definite and indefinite articles: cul (cun + masculine singular il); cui (cun + masculine plural i); cu la (cun + feminine singular la); cu lis (cun + feminine plural lis); cuntun (cun + masculine singular un); cuntune (cun + feminine singular une). Examples: cul om (with the man); cu la femine (with the woman); cui fantats (with the lads); cu lis mans (with the hands); cuntun pancôr (with a baker); cuntune sûr (with a sister). The student will note that cu lis mans (with the hands) functions as equivalent to the English with one’s hands; for instance, lavorâ cu lis mans (to work with one’s hands). New vocabulary: The masculine noun popul means people, in the sense of nation; for instance, il popul furlan (the Friulian people, the Friulian nation).

EXERCISES. 1-Provide the contraction of di, in and cun with the definite article for each of the nouns which follow: scjatule; fede; gjornâl; fâr; scjatulis; tieris; gjornâi; libris. 2-Translate to Friulian: I must work with a butcher; thou must speak with a man of faith; they are speaking in Polish with a monk; this is a people with a land and a language; are those lads speaking with a devout mother?; I must listen to the priest with this sacristan; the butcher works with his hands; I work with my hands to put the books and the newspapers into the boxes; thou must kill him with the sword.

ANSWERS. 1-de scjatule, te scjatule, cu la scjatule (of the box, in the box, with the box); de fede, te fede, cu la fede (of the faith, in the faith, with the faith); dal gjornâl, tal gjornâl, cul gjornâl (of the newspaper, in the newspaper, with the newspaper); dal fâr, tal fâr, cul fâr (of the lighthouse, in the lighthouse, with the lighthouse); des scjatulis, tes scjatulis, cu lis scjatulis (of the boxes, in the boxes, with the boxes); des tieris, tes tieris, cu lis tieris (of the lands, in the lands, with the lands); dai gjornâi, tai gjornâi, cui gjornâi (of the newspapers, in the newspapers, with the newspapers); dai libris, tai libris, cui libris (of the books, in the books, with the books). 2-o ài di lavorâ cuntun becjâr; tu âs di fevelâ cuntun om di fede; a fevelin par polac cuntun munic; chest al è un popul cuntune tiere e une lenghe; fevelino chei fantats cuntune mari devote?; o ài di scoltâ il predi cun chest muini; il becjâr al lavore cu lis mans; o lavori cu lis mans par meti i libris e i gjornâi tes scjatulis; tu âs di copâlu cu la spade.

Lesson XXIII

Volê is an irregular verb meaning to want. So does it conjugate in the present indicative: o vuei (I want); tu vuelis (thou wantest); al vûl (he wants); e vûl (she wants); o volìn (we want); o volês (you want); a vuelin (they want). Of tu vuelis, a variant is tu vûs. The Friulian a means at, to, unto; this preposition contracts with definite articles: al (a + masculine singular il); ai (a + masculine plural i); a la (a + feminine singular la); a lis (a + feminine plural lis). Example: lâ al cine (to go to the cinema). The student will note that the feminine forms a la and a lis avoid contraction; however, contracted forms thereof are indeed possible: ae (equivalent to a la) and aes (equivalent to a lis), but ae and aes will not be employed in these lessons. Two Friulian locutions employing the solitary a include: lâ a vore (to go to work); lâ a scuele (to go to school). Both vore (work) and scuele (school) are feminine nouns. At lesson XVI, the student encountered the indirect object pronouns of Friulian; these are needed to make utterances of the sort: il predi i fevele cussì al munic (the priest speaks so to the monk); chei fantats ur fevelin in buine fede ai oms (those lads speak in good faith to the men). In the foregoing examples, it is insufficient to say only al munic and ai oms; these must be accompanied by i (to him) for the former, and by ur (to them) for the latter.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: John speaks to the man; John speaks to the men; John speaks to the woman; John speaks to the women; the baker speaks in Friulian to John; the shoemaker speaks in Friulian to the lads; who is that man who speaks of these things to the women?; who are those men who want to speak of these things to the women?; why speakest thou to the wicked man? 2-Translate to Friulian: wilt thou go now to the cinema?; the lads want not to go to school; the men want to go to work; I have to go to work with the men; those men want not to speak to us.

ANSWERS. 1-Zuan i fevele al om; Zuan ur fevele ai oms; Zuan i fevele a la femine; Zuan ur fevele a lis feminis; il pancôr i fevele par furlan a Zuan; il cjaliâr ur fevele par furlan ai fantats; cui isal chel om che ur fevele di chestis robis a lis feminis?; cui sono chei oms che a vuelin fevelâur di chestis robis a lis feminis?; parcè i fevelistu al om trist? 2-vuelistu lâ cumò al cine?; i fantats no vuelin lâ a scuele; i oms a vuelin lâ a vore; o ài di lâ a vore cui oms; chei oms no vuelin fevelânus.

Lesson XXIV

is Friulian for to give; its conjugation is irregular. Present indicative: o doi (I give); tu dâs (thou givest); al da (he gives); e da (she gives); o din (we give); o dais (you give); a dan (they give). As for domandâ, this is Friulian for to ask; its conjugation is regular and follows that of fevelâ (lesson XII). With and domandâ, we may say the following: dâ il permès (to give permission); domandâ il permès (to ask permission). Consider these examples: mi dan il permès di fevelâ (they give unto me the permission to speak; or put more simply in English, they give me permission to speak); ti domandi il permès di fevelâ (I ask unto thee the permission to speak; or put more simply in English, I ask thee permission to speak). Just as permission is given unto a man, so is it asked unto him, though the omission of unto (or to) be frequent in English; the student may refer to the indirect object pronouns of Friulian provided at lesson XVI.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the man gives the book to me; I give the book to the man; I give the boxes to the lads; the lads give him the sword; the lads give the man the sword; the lads give John the sword; the women give us the boxes; we give the women the boxes; we give thee permission to speak; givest thou me permission to listen?; givest thou her permission to buy?; they give you not permission to take care of the house; the shoemaker wants to speak to the lad and give him these shoes; the priest wants to speak to the men and give them these books; the monk wants to give me these holy things. 2-Translate to Friulian: is he asking the man permission to put the newspaper into the box?; I am not asking them permission to speak; they ask him why he wants to learn Russian; they ask me for information.

ANSWERS. 1-l’om mi da il libri; i doi il libri al om; ur doi lis scjatulis ai fantats; i fantats i dan la spade; i fantats i dan la spade al om; i fantats i dan la spade a Zuan; lis feminis nus dan lis scjatulis; ur din lis scjatulis a lis feminis; ti din il permès di fevelâ; mi dâstu il permès di scoltâ?; i dâstu il permès di comprâ?; no us dan il permès di viodi de cjase; il cjaliâr al vûl fevelâi al fantat i dâi chestis scarpis; il predi al vûl fevelâur ai oms i dâur chescj libris; il munic al vûl dâmi chestis robis santis. 2-i domandial il permès al om di meti il gjornâl te scjatule?; no ur domandi il permès di fevelâ; i domandin parcè che al vûl imparâ il rus; mi domandin une informazion.

Lesson XXV

The imperative is employed to give commands; it takes an affirmative form (do this, do that) and a negated form (do this not, do that not). The student will first consider the negated form. To give a negated command in Friulian, the student will position one of the following before an infinitive: no sta (second-person singular); no stait a (second-person plural); no stin a (first-person plural). Examples: no sta fevelâ (speak {thou} not); no stait a fevelâ (speak {you} not); no stin a fevelâ (let us not speak). The second-person singular form is employed when speaking to one person on a familar level, whereas the second-person plural form is employed when speaking to more than one person on a familiar level. Dut is Friulian for all; it takes four forms: dut (masculine singular); ducj (masculine plural); dute (feminine singular); dutis (feminine plural). Examples: ducj i oms (all the men); dutis lis feminis (all the women).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian, second-person singular: listen not; kill not; put not; do not buy; do not ask; do not give; do not put all the books into the boxes; do not tell the man what I have to do; tell not the men who I am; do not give all these things to the lads. 2-Translate to Friulian, second-person plural: give not the lads permission to speak; ask them not permission to do these things; do not listen to the wicked men. 3-Translate to Friulian, first-person plural: let us not speak to the women; let us not give them any book; let us not do these things which we are to do. 4-Employ the correct form of dut before each of the following: la vore; i munics; il lat; lis spadis.

ANSWERS. 1-no sta scoltâ; no sta copâ; no sta meti; no sta comprâ; no sta domandâ; no sta dâ; no sta meti ducj i libris tes scjatulis; no sta dîi al om ce che o ài di fâ; no sta dîur ai oms cui che o soi; no sta dâur ai fantats dutis chestis robis. 2-no stait a daûr ai fantats il permès di fevelâ; no stait a domandâur il permès di fâ chestis robis; no stait a scoltâ i oms triscj. 3-no stin a fevelâur a lis feminis; no stin a dâur nissun libri; no stin a fâ chestis robis che o vin di fâ. 4-dute la vore (all the work); ducj i munics (all the monks); dut il lat (all the milk); dutis lis spadis (all the swords).

Lesson XXVI

The student will now begin to examine the Friulian imperative in its affirmative form, taking fevelâ as a model for regular verbs whose infinitive ends in -â. Consider: fevele (speak {thou}; second-person singular); fevelait (speak {you}; second-person plural); fevelìn (let us speak; first-person plural). The verb endings to be retained, as can be ascertained from the foregoing examples, are -e, -ait and -ìn. Another example: cope (kill {thou}); copait (kill {you}); copìn (let us kill). Consider now the following, where the second-person singular -e becomes -i- before the suffixed pronoun: copilu (kill him); copile (kill her); copiju (kill them; males or mixed gender are to be killed); copilis (kill them; females are to be killed). These are the direct object pronouns of Friulian: mi (me); ti (thee); lu (him, it); le (her, it); nus (us); us (you); ju (them; masculine); lis (them; feminine); it was at lesson XVI that the indirect object pronouns were presented.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate the following commands to Friulian, second-person singular: work; remain; listen; ask; buy; kill; study. 2-Translate the same, second-person plural. 3-Translate the same, first-person plural. 4-Negate the same, all three persons. 5-Translate to Friulian, second-person singular: buy it; buy them; buy them not; speak to him; speak to them; speak not to them; speak to us; ask me. 6-Translate to Friulian, second-person plural: listen to her; ask her; kill her; speak to us. 7-Translate to Friulian, first-person plural: let us buy it; let us kill them; let us speak to her; let us ask them.

ANSWERS. 1-lavore; reste; scolte; domande; compre; cope; studie. 2-lavorait; restait; scoltait; domandait; comprait; copait; studiait. 3-lavorìn; restìn; scoltìn; domandìn; comprìn; copìn; studiìn. 4-no sta lavorâ, no stait a lavorâ, no stin a lavorâ; no sta restâ, no stait a restâ, no stin a restâ; no sta scoltâ, no stait a scoltâ, no stin a scoltâ; no sta domandâ, no stait a domandâ, no stin a domandâ; no sta comprâ, no stait a comprâ, no stin a comprâ; no sta copâ, no stait a copâ, no stin a copâ; no sta studiâ, no stait a studiâ, no stin a studiâ. 5-comprilu; compriju; no sta comprâju; fevelii; feveliur; no sta fevelâur; fevelinus; domandimi. 6-scoltaitle; domandaitji; copaitle; fevelaitnus. Here the student must note that scoltaitle translates after the Friulian manner as listen her, and domandaitji as ask unto her. He will also note the insertion of -j- between the second-person plural -ait- and the vowel -i; more examples: fevelaitji (speak to him); fevelaitjur (speak to them); domandaitji (ask her); domandaitjur (ask them). 7-comprìnlu; copìnju; fevelìnji; domandìnjur.

Lesson XXVII

Of tasê, learn the affirmative imperative: tâs (keep {thou} quiet); tasêt (keep {you} quiet); tasìn (let us keep quiet). Of finî, learn the same: finìs (finish {thou}); finît (finish {you}); finìn (let us finish). Of viodi, learn the same: viôt (see {thou}); viodêt (see {you}); viodìn (let us see). The student will use these as models to complete the exercises. New vocabulary: cjapâ (to take); crodi (to believe).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate the following commands to Friulian, second-person singular: kill; take; keep quiet; understand; finish; see; believe. 2-Translate the same, second-person plural. 3-Translate the same, first-person plural. 4-Translate to Friulian: kill (you) it; take (you) it; kill (thou) it; take (thou) it; understand (thou) me; finish (thou) them; believe (thou) me; let us finish them. 5-Translate to Friulian: see (thou) to finishing the work; see (you) to finishing the work; speak (you) not to us in Italian because we understand it not; buy (thou) me a book; put (thou) the book into the box; put (you) these books into the boxes; let us put these shoes into the white boxes.

ANSWERS. 1-cope; cjape; tâs; capìs; finìs; viôt; crôt. 2-copait; cjapait; tasêt; capît; finît; viodêt; crodêt. 3-copìn; cjapìn; tasìn; capìn; finìn; viodìn; crodìn. 4-copaitlu; cjapaitlu; copilu; cjapilu; capissimi; finissiju; crodimi; finìnju. 5-viôt di finî la vore; viodêt di finî la vore; no stait a fevelânus par talian parcè che no lu capìn; comprimi un libri; met il libri te scjatule; metêt chescj libris tes scjatulis; metìn chestis scarpis tes scjatulis blancjis.

Lesson XXVIII

The Friulian for the lad gives the book to me is il fantat mi da il libri, whereas the Friulian for the lad gives it to me is il fantat mal da. Mal is the contraction of the indirect object pronoun mi (to me) and the direct object pronoun lu (it), where lu stands in for the masculine singular il libri (the book). Consider: il fantat al da il libri (the lad gives the book); il fantat lu da (the lad gives it); il fantat mal da (the lad gives it to me). The direct object pronouns lu (him, it; masculine singular), ju (them; masculine plural), le (her, it; feminine singular) and lis (them; feminine plural) contract with mi to form mal, mai, me, mes, respectively. Another example: il fantat al da la scjatule (the lad gives the box); il fantat le da (the lad gives it); il fantat me da (the lad gives it to me). In a similar way, the indirect object pronoun ti (to thee) contracts with the four direct object pronouns to form tal, tai, te, tes. New vocabulary: la bandiere (flag); neri (black).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the priest gives the permission-the priest gives it to me; the lad gives the newspapers-the lad gives them to me; the guardian gives the Friulian flag-the guardian gives it to me; the shoemaker gives the shoes-the shoemaker gives them to me. 2-Translate to Friulian: this permission, the priest gives it not to thee; these newspapers, the lad gives them not to thee; this Friulian flag, the guardian gives it not to thee; these shoes, the shoemaker gives them not to thee. 3-Translate to Friulian: these Friulian flags, the lad wants to give them to me; these black shoes, the shoemaker wants to give them to thee; this Italian newspaper, the man wants not to give it to me; these books, the lads want not to give them to thee.

ANSWERS. 1-il predi al da il permès-il predi mal da; il fantat al da i gjornâi-il fantat mai da; il vuardean al da la bandiere furlane-il vuardean me da; il cjaliâr al da lis scarpis-il cjaliâr mes da. 2-chest permès, il predi no tal da; chescj gjornâi, il fantat no tai da; cheste bandiere furlane, il vuardean no te da; chestis scarpis, il cjaliâr no tes da. 3-chestis bandieris furlanis, il fantat al vûl dâmes; chestis scarpis neris, il cjaliâr al vûl dâtes; chest gjornâl talian, l’om nol vûl dâmal; chescj libris, i fantats no vuelin dâtai.

Lesson XXIX

The Friulian for the woman gives the book to him is la femine i da il libri, whereas the Friulian for the woman gives it to him is la femine jal da. Jal is the contraction of the indirect object pronoun i (to him, to her, to it) and the direct object pronoun lu (it), where lu stands in for the masculine singular il libri (the book). Consider: la femine e da (the woman gives); la femine i da (the woman gives to him); la femine i da il libri (the women gives the book to him); la femine lu da (the woman gives it); la femine jal da (the woman gives it to him). The direct object pronouns lu (him, it; masculine singular), ju (them; masculine plural), le (her, it; feminine singular) and lis (them; feminine plural) contract with i to form jal, jai, je, jes, respectively. Another example: lis feminis a dan (the women give); lis feminis i dan (the women give to her); lis feminis i dan lis scjatulis (the women give the boxes to her); lis feminis lis dan (the women give them); lis feminis jes dan (the women give them to her). Of dâ, learn the imperative: da (give {thou}; second-person singular); dait (give {you}; second-person plural); din (let us give; first person plural).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the permission, the priest gives it to him; the newspapers, the lad gives them to her; the Friulian flag, the guardian gives it to him; the white shoes, the shoemaker gives them to her; the sword, the man gives it not to the lad; the books, we give them not to John; the black shoes, I give them to the sacristan; the newspaper, I give it not to the woman. 2-Translate to Friulian: the book, I want not to give it to her; the box, they want not to give it to him; the books, give (you) them to her; the boxes, give (thou) them to him; the books, give (you) them not to Mary; the boxes, give (thou) them not to John.

ANSWERS. 1-il permès, il predi jal da; i gjornâi, il fantat jai da; la bandiere furlane, il vuardean je da; lis scarpis blancjis, il cjaliâr jes da; la spade, l’om no je da al fantat; lis libris, no jai din a Zuan; lis scarpis neris, jes doi al muini; il gjornâl, no jal doi a la femine. 2-il libri, no vuei dâjal; la scjatule, no vuelin dâje; i libris, daitjai; lis scjatulis, dajes; i libris, no stait a dâjai a Marie; lis scjatulis, no sta dâjes a Zuan.

Lesson XXX

Just as the indirect object pronouns mi, ti and i contract with the direct object pronouns lu, ju, le and lis (see lessons XXVIII and XXIX), so too do the indirect object pronouns nus (to us), us (to you) and ur (to them) contract with the same, to produce: (with lu) nus al, us al, ur al; (with ju) nus ai, us ai, ur ai; (with le) nus e, us e, ur e; (with lis) nus es, us es, ur es. Examples: i libris, us ai doi (the books, I give them to you); lis scarpis, nus es dan (the shoes, they give them to us). New vocabulary: menâ (to lead); regarding the formation of its affirmative imperative, the student may wish to review lesson XXVI.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the permission, the priest gives it to us; the newspapers, the lad gives them to you; the Friulian flag, the guardian gives it to them; the white shoes, the shoemaker gives them to us; the sword, the man gives it not to you; the books, we give them not to them; the black shoes, I give them to the sacristans; the newspaper, I give it not to the women. 2-Translate to Friulian: the book, I want to give it to the lads; the lads, lead (thou) them to me; the women, lead (you) them to us; the lad, lead (you) him to them; the lad, let us lead him to them.

ANSWERS. 1-il permès, il predi nus al da; i gjornâi, il fantat us ai da; la bandiere furlane, il vuardean ur e da; lis scarpis blancjis, il cjaliâr nus es da; la spade, l’om no us e da; i libris, no ur ai din; lis scarpis neris, ur es doi ai muinis; il gjornâl, no ur al doi a lis feminis. 2-il libri, o vuei dâural ai fantats; i fantats, menimai; lis feminis, menaitnuses; il fantat, menaitjural; il fantat, menìnjural.

Lesson XXXI

It was at lesson X that the student learnt the present indicative of (to have), and he ought to review it there, if necessary; this conjugation is used in conjunction with a past participle to form the recent past of Friulian (il passât prossim). Consider examples to discern patterns: (i) fevelâ (to speak), fevelât (past participle spoken), o ài fevelât (I have spoken, I spoke); (ii) considerâ (to consider), considerât (past participle considered), al à considerât (he has considered, he considered); (iii) copâ (to kill), copât (past participle killed), o vin copât (we have killed, we killed); (iv) finî (to finish), finît (past participle finished), a àn finît (they have finished, they finished); (v) capî (to understand), capît (past participle understood), e à capît (she has understood, she understood); (vi) plasê (to please), plasût (past participle pleased), o vês plasût (you have pleased, you pleased); (vii) tasê (to keep quiet), tasût (past participle kept quiet), tu âs tasût (thou hast kept quiet, thou keptest quiet); (viii) viodi (to see), viodût (past participle seen), no ài viodût (I have not seen, I saw not); (ix) crodi (to believe), crodût (past participle believed), aial crodût? (has he believed?, did he believe?). New vocabulary: nuie (nothing).

EXERCISES. 1-Provide the past participle of the following: scoltâ (to listen); lavorâ (to work); studiâ (to study); (to give); domandâ (to ask); comprâ (to buy); intuî (to intuit); furnî (to furnish); rapî (to kidnap); savê (to know); volê (to want); temê (to fear); (to have); bati (to beat); meti (to put); decidi (to decide). 2-Translate to Friulian: I bought a book; have you seen that man?; they have not understood; I have wanted to come; he spoke to me in Italian; I gave the book to them; the book, I gave it to the lad; what hast thou decided to do?; we have studied Friulian. 3-Provide the past participles of the following; the student will have to look to the answers for the correct form, as they do not follow the pattern of others: vignî (to come); sintî (to hear); cjoli (to take); jessi (to be), (to do). 4-Translate to Friulian: why hast thou taken the book?; I have heard nothing; I have understood nothing; why hast thou done nothing?; we have bought nothing.

ANSWERS. 1-scoltât (listened); lavorât (worked); studiât (studied); dât (given); domandât (asked); comprât (bought); intuît (intuited); furnît (furnished); rapît (kidnapped); savût (known); volût (wanted); temût (feared); vût (had); batût (beaten); metût (put); decidût (decided). 2-o ài comprât un libri; vêso viodût chel om?; no àn capît; o ài volût vignî; mi à fevelât par talian; ur ài dât il libri; il libri, jal ài dât al fantat; ce âstu decidût di fâ?; o vin studiât il furlan. 3-vignût (come); sintût (heard); cjolt (taken); stât (been); fat (done). 4-parcè âstu cjolt il libri?; no ài sintût nuie; no ài capît nuie; parcè no âstu fat nuie?; no vin comprât nuie.

Lesson XXXII

Viodût (seen), which the student encountered in the previous lesson, is the past participle of viodi (to see). Take now these four examples: chest om che tu âs viodût (this man whom thou hast seen); chescj oms che tu âs viodûts (these men whom thou hast seen); cheste femine che tu âs viodude (this woman whom thou hast seen); chestis feminis che tu âs viodudis (these women whom thou hast seen). In the foregoing examples, the past participle accords in number and gender with the direct object. So does it accord in these examples: o vin viodût chest om (we have seen this man); o vin viodûts chescj oms (we have seen these men); o vin viodude cheste femine (we have seen this woman); o vin viodudis chestis feminis (we have seen these women). And again so does it accord in these examples: chest om, lu ài viodût (this man, I have seen him); chescj oms, ju ài viodûts (these men, I have seen them); cheste femine, le ài viodude (this woman, I have seen her); chestis feminis, lis ài viodudis (these women, I have seen them). New vocabulary: grant (great, big); la lûs (light); la tentazion (temptation); la peraule (word); il batisim (baptism); fâ un pecjât (to commit a sin; literally, to make a sin); seont (according to); la istruzion (instruction); fâ une domande (to ask a question; literally, to make a question); la vuere (war); Diu (God). Of grant, the four forms are: grant (masculine singular); grancj (masculine plural); grande (feminine singular); grandis (feminine plural).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: we have seen a great light; the books, I have not taken them; that house, has he bought it?; the temptations which I have had; those men, he killed them by sword; why have you not given me the permission to do this work?; the words which I have studied; these boxes, hast thou given them to the woman?; the baptisms which the priests have done; that man, great things he has done for you; we have committed these sins; these works, I want to have them done and finished; according to the instructions which I have given thee; these great men have asked a question. 2-Translate to Friulian: that lad, how big he is!; those lads, how big they are!; the great battles of this great people; the Great War; how big is that lighthouse?; God is great.

ANSWERS. 1-o vin viodude une grande lûs; i libris, no ju ài cjolts; chê cjase, le aial comprade?; lis tentazions che o ài vudis; chei oms, ju à copâts cu la spade; parcè no mi âstu dât il permès di fâ cheste vore?; lis peraulis che o ài studiadis; chestis scjatulis, jes âstu dadis a la femine?; i batisims che i predis a àn fats; chel om, grandis robis al à fatis par vualtris; o vin fats chescj pecjâts; chestis voris, o vuei vêlis fatis e finidis; seont lis istruzions che ti ài dadis; chescj grancj oms a àn fate une domande. 2-chel fantat, ce grant che al è!; chei fantats, ce grancj che a son!; lis grandis bataiis di chest grant popul; la Grande Vuere; trop grant isal chel fâr?; Diu al è grant.

Lesson XXXIII

Rather than the present indicative of vê, certain verbs employ that of jessi in the formation of the Friulian recent past. The present indicative conjugation of jessi was presented at lesson V, and the student ought to review it there, if necessary. Consider a number of examples: {male} o soi lât (I have gone, I went); {males or both genders} o sin lâts (we have gone, we went); {female} o soi lade (I have gone, I went); {females} o sin ladis (we have gone, we went); al è nassût (he was born); e je nassude (she was born); al è muart (he has died, he died); e je muarte (she has died, she died); {males or both genders} a son muarts (they have died, they died); {females} a son muartis (they have died, they died). It will be noted that, when the auxiliary is jessi rather than vê, the past participle accords for gender and number with its subject. The past participles in question here are lât (gone; from lâ, to go); nassût (born; from nassi, to be born); muart (dead; from murî, to die). Learn also: tornât (returned, gone back; from tornâ, to return, to go back).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: John’s father is dead; Mark’s mother has died; John’s brother died; the shoemaker’s sister died at home; the priest was born in Slovenia; those priests were born in Poland; those women were not born in Italy; the lads, what have they gone to do?; the lads have gone to study Friulian; those women, why have they gone to speak with the butcher?; I have returned to Friûl (male); why hast thou not returned to Friûl? (female); the priests have gone back to Europe; the women have gone back home. 2-Of the past participles lât, nassût, muart and tornât, provide the masculine singular, masculine plural, feminine singular and feminine plural forms.

ANSWERS. 1-il pari di Zuan al è muart; la mari di Marc e je muarte; il fradi di Zuan al è muart; la sûr dal cjaliâr e je muarte a cjase; il predi al è nassût in Slovenie; chei predis a son nassûts in Polonie; chês feminis no son nassudis in Italie; i fantats, ce sono lâts a fâ?; i fantats a son lâts a studiâ il furlan; chês feminis, parcè sono ladis a fevelâ cul becjâr?; o soi tornât in Friûl; parcè no sêstu tornade in Friûl?; i predis a son tornâts in Europe; lis feminis a son tornadis a cjase. 2-lât, lâts, lade, ladis; nassût, nassûts, nassude, nassudis; muart, muarts, muarte, muartis; tornât, tornâts, tornade, tornadis.

Lesson XXXIV

The Friulian possessive adjective for my is expressed in four different ways, depending on the noun it modifies: gno (masculine singular); miei (masculine plural); (feminine singular); mês (feminine plural). Examples: il gno libri (my book); i miei libris (my books); la mê scarpe (my shoe); lis mês scarpis (my shoes). The possessive adjective is preceded by the definite article; both the possessive adjective and the definite article agree in gender and number with the noun. It will be noted that the definite article is not employed with the names of family members in the singular, but it reappears in the plural: gno pari (my father); gno fradi (my brother); gno barbe (my uncle); mê mari (my mother); mê sûr (my sister); mê agne (my aunt), but: i miei fradis (my brothers); i miei barbis (my uncles); lis mês sûrs (my sisters); lis mês agnis (my aunts). With the Friulian for husband and wife, the definite article is employed even in the singular: il gno om (my husband); la mê femine (my wife). Following are the remaining possessive adjectives, all in the order of masculine singular, masculine plural, feminine singular, feminine plural: to, tiei, tô, tôs (thy); so, siei, sô, sôs (his, her, its); nestri, nestris, nestre, nestris (our); vuestri, vuestris, vuestre, vuestris (your); lôr, lôr, lôr, lôr (their).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: my book; thy book; her book; our book; your book; their book. 2-Translate to Friulian: my books; thy books; her books; our books; your books; their books. 3-Translate to Friulian: my shoe; thy shoe; his shoe; our shoe; your shoe; their shoe. 4-Translate to Friulian: my shoes; thy shoes; his shoes; our shoes; your shoes; their shoes. 5-Translate to Friulian: my father; thy brother; her father; our brother; their father; my husband; thy brothers; their fathers. 6-Translate to Friulian: my mother; thy sister; his mother; our sister; their mother; my wife; thy sisters; their mothers. 7-Translate to Friulian: he has gone to speak with his aunt; has he gone to work with his uncle?; they have returned to Friûl to work with their uncles.

ANSWERS. 1-il gno libri; il to libri; il so libri; il nestri libri; il vuestri libri; il lôr libri. 2-i miei libris; i tiei libris; i siei libris; i nestris libris; i vuestris libris; i lôr libris. 3-la mê scarpe; la tô scarpe; la sô scarpe; la nestre scarpe; la vuestre scarpe; la lôr scarpe. 4-lis mês scarpis; lis tôs scarpis; lis sôs scarpis; lis nestris scarpis; lis vuestris scarpis; lis lôr scarpis. 5-gno pari; to fradi; so pari; nestri fradi; lôr pari; il gno om; i tiei fradis; i lôr paris. 6-mê mari; tô sûr; sô mari; nestre sûr; lôr mari; la mê femine; lis tôs sûrs; lis lôr maris. 7-al è lât a fevelâ cun sô agne; isal lât a lavorâ cun so barbe?; a son tornâts in Friûl a lavorâ cui lôr barbis.

Lesson XXXV

Whereas the transitive lavâ means to wash {something}, the reflexive lavâsi means to wash oneself; the reflexive aspect of lavâsi is indicated by its si ending. Here now is the present indicative conjugation, first that of lavâ: o lavi (I wash; first-person singular); tu lavis (thou washest; second-person singular); al lave (he washes; masculine, third-person singular); e lave (she washes; feminine, third-person singular); o lavìn (we wash; first-person plural); o lavais (you wash; second-person plural); a lavin (they wash; third-person plural); and now that of lavâsi: mi lavi (I wash myself; first-person singular); tu ti lavis (thou washest thyself; second-person singular); si lave (he washes himself, she washes herself; third-person singular); si lavìn (we wash ourselves; first-person plural); si lavais (you wash yourselves; second-person plural); si lavin (they wash themeselves; third-person plural). From these conjugations, the student will note that the atonic pronouns are omitted in declarative, reflexive use (for instance, mi lavi, not o mi lavi), with exception to the second-person singular (tu ti lavis, not ti lavis); and that it is only in the first-person singular and second-person singular that a reflexive form other than si is employed, namely mi and ti. The negation of the above reflexive forms is as follows: no mi lavi; no tu ti lavis; no si lave; no si lavìn; no si lavais; no si lavin. In the recent past, personal reflexive forms take jessi for auxiliary (impersonal reflexive forms employ vê, but this is beyond the scope of this lesson*), for instance: mi soi lavât (I have washed myself; male); ti sêstu lavade? (hast thou washed thyself?; female); no si son lavâts (they have not washed themselves; males or both genders); si sin lavadis (we have washed ourselves; females). To speak of washing one’s own parts of the body, the reflexive is employed: lavâsi lis mans (to wash one’s hands); mi lavi lis mans (I wash my hands); si è lavât lis mans (he has washed his hands). New vocabulary: il paviment (floor); la machine (car); platâsi (to hide oneself); il madrac (snake). *One example thereof will nevertheless be given: si à fevelât di te (thou wast spoken of, one has spoken of thee).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I have washed the floor; has thou washed the floor?; he has not washed the car; when did you wash the car?; we washed the church floor. 2-Translate these imperatives to Friulian: wash thy hands; wash your hands; let us wash our hands. 3-Translate to Friulian, using masculine forms of verb: he has killed that man; he has killed himself; they have spoken to one another; I went to hide myself; a snake has hidden itself in the box. 4-Translate to Friulian, using feminine forms of verb: she went to hide herself; they went to hide themselves; I went to wash myself.

ANSWERS. 1-o ài lavât il paviment; âstu lavât il paviment?; nol à lavade la machine; cuant vêso lavade la machine?; o vin lavât il paviment de glesie. 2-laviti lis mans; lavaitsi lis mans; lavìnsi lis mans. 3-al à copât chel om; si è copât; si son fevelâts; o soi lât a platâmi; te scjatule si è platât un madrac. 4-e je lade a platâsi; a son ladis a platâsi; o soi lade a lavâmi.

Lesson XXXVI

Of jessi (to be), the imperfect conjugation is: o jeri (I was); tu jeris (thou wast); al jere (he was); e jere (she was); o jerin (we were); o jeris (you were); a jerin (they were). Negated, these are: no jeri; no tu jeris; nol jere; no jere; no jerin; no jeris; no jerin. The interrogative forms are: jerio?; jeristu?; jerial?; jerie?; jerino?; jeriso?; jerino? Of (to have), the imperfect conjugation is: o vevi (I had); tu vevis (thou hadst); al veve (he had); e veve (she had); o vevin (we had); o vevis (you had); a vevin (they had). Negated, these are: no vevi; no tu vevis; nol veve; no veve; no vevin; no vevis; no vevin. The interrogative forms are: vevio?; vevistu?; vevial?; vevie?; vevino?; veviso?; vevino? The imperfect is employed to express ongoing past action. Some examples: o jeri strac (I was tired); al jere inrabiât (he was angry); îr o jerin avilîts (yesterday we were sad); o vevi un cjan (I had a dog, I used to have a dog); al veve un gjat (he had a cat, he used to have a cat); e veve di fâlu (she had to do it); o vevin pôre (we were afraid [we had fear]); a vevin fan (they were hungry [they had hunger]); no tu vevis sêt (thou wast not thirsty [thou hadst not thirst]). Friulian expresses to be afraid, to be hungry and to be thirsty literally as to have fear (vê pôre), to have hunger (vê fan) and to have thirst (vê sêt). Pôre (fear) is a feminine noun; fan (hunger) and sêt (thirst) are both masculine. In conjunction with a past participle, the imperfect of and jessi as auxiliaries are employed to form the Friulian equivalent of the past perfect: o vevi fevelât (I had spoken); al veve durmît (he had slept); al jere stât (he had been); e jere stade (she had been); o vevin viodût (we had seen).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: she was tired; she was not tired; was she tired?; was she not tired?; he was tired; he was not tired; was he tired?; was he not tired?; the men were tired; were the men tired?; the women were tired; were the women not tired? 2-Translate to Friulian, assuming female subjects: I was angry; wast thou not angry?; I was sad and afraid; they were tired and thirsty. 3-Translate to Friulian, assuming male subjects: when I was young I had a dog; when they were young they were always angry; yesterday I was sad but today I am angry. 4-Translate to Friulian: I bought the book that I had seen; they did not understand what we had said; I did not understand what had been done.

ANSWERS. 1-e jere strache; no jere strache; jerie strache?; no jerie strache?; al jere strac; nol jere strac; jerial strac?; no jerial strac?; i oms a jerin stracs; jerino stracs i oms?; lis feminis a jerin strachis; no jerino strachis lis feminis? 2-o jeri inrabiade; no jeristu inrabiade?; o jeri avilide e o vevi pôre; a jerin strachis e a vevin sêt. 3-cuant che o jeri zovin o vevi un cjan; cuant che a jerin zovins a jerin simpri inrabiâts; îr o jeri avilît ma vuê o soi inrabiât. 4-o ài comprât il libri che o vevi viodût; no àn capît ce che o vevin dit; no ài capît ce che al jere stât fat.

Lesson XXXVII

This lesson continues study of the imperfect, the formation whereof follows predictable patterns. The student may study the following as models: (i) fevelâ (to speak): o fevelavi (I was speaking), tu fevelavis (thou wast speaking), al fevelave (he was speaking), e fevelave (she was speaking), o fevelavin (we were speaking), o fevelavis (you were speaking), a fevelavin (they were speaking); (ii) tasê (to keep quiet): o tasevi (I was keeping quiet), tu tasevis (thou wast keeping quiet), al taseve (he was keeping quiet), e taseve (she was keeping quiet), o tasevin (we were keeping quiet), o tasevis (you were keeping quiet), a tasevin (they were keeping quiet); (iii) crodi (to believe): o crodevi (I was believing), tu crodevis (thou wast believing), al crodeve (he was believing), e crodeve (she was believing), o crodevin (we were believing), o crodevis (you were believing), a crodevin (they were believing); (iv) capî (to understand): o capivi (I was understanding), tu capivis (thou wast understanding), al capive (he was understanding), e capive (she was understanding), o capivin (we were understanding), o capivis (you were understanding), a capivin (they were understanding). For simplicity, the imperfect is translated above as I was believing, thou wast believing, and so on, but this tense also expresses the equivalent of I used to believe, I would {habitually in the past} believe, and other formulations indicating ongoing past action. New vocabulary: il bosc (forest); preâ (to pray); durmî (to sleep); mangjâ (to eat); intant che (whilst); ogni dì (every day).

EXERCISES. 1-I was walking in the forest; thou wast eating in the forest; they used to always speak to me in Friulian; I did not know what to do; they were praying in the church; they were keeping quiet because they were afraid; the thing that I wanted to say is this; he was putting the books into the box; those lads did not want to go to sleep; you were eating because you were hungry; whilst thou wast sleeping; whilst thou wast washing thyself; whilst he used to work; he would pray every day because he was devout; they did not use to work every day. 2-Translate to Friulian: I have seen-I was seeing; they have spoken-they were speaking; she has made-she was making; we have not made-we were not making; thou hast not taken-thou wast not taking; I have known-I used to know; he has been-he used to be; she has been-she used to be; I have had-I used to have.

ANSWERS. 1-o cjaminavi tal bosc; tu mangjavis tal bosc; mi fevelavin simpri par furlan; no savevi ce fâ; a preavin te glesie; a tasevin parcè che a vevin pôre; la robe che o volevi dî e je cheste; al meteve i libris te scjatule; chei fantats no volevin lâ a durmî; o mangjavis parcè che o vevis fan; intant che tu durmivis; intant che tu ti lavavis; intant che al lavorave; al preave ogni dì parcè che al jere devot; no lavoravin ogni dì. 2-o ài viodût-o viodevi; a àn fevelât-a fevelavin; e à fat-e faseve; no vin fat-no fasevin; no tu âs cjolt-no tu cjolevis; o ài savût-o savevi; al è stât-al jere; e je stade-e jere; o ài vût-o vevi.

Lesson XXXVIII

It was in lesson IX that the student learnt to count from nought to ten, and he ought to review there, if necessary. He will now learn to count beyond: undis (11); dodis (12); tredis (13); cutuardis (14); cuindis (15); sedis (16); disesiet (17); disevot (18); disenûf (19); vincj (20); vincjeun (21); vincjedoi (22); vincjetrê (23); vincjecuatri (24); vincjecinc (25); vincjesîs (26); vincjesiet (27); vincjevot (28); vincjenûf (29); trente (30); cuarante (40); cincuante (50); sessante (60); setante (70); otante (80); novante (90); cent (100); dusinte (200); tresinte (300); cuatricent (400); cinccent (500); sîscent (600); sietcent (700); votcent (800); nûfcent (900); mil (1.000); cent mil (100.000); un milion (1.000.000); un miliart (1.000.000.000). Just as un (1) and doi (2) take the feminine forms une and dôs, so too does any numeral ending therewith, for instance: trenteun (31) and trentedoi (32) take the feminine forms trenteune and trentedôs. Milion and miliart take the plural forms milions and miliarts.

EXERCISES. 1-Say in Friulian: 35; 47; 58; 61; 73; 82; 94; 106; 244; 351; 877; 962; 1.001; 1.200; 2.222; 3.456; 4.989; 5.588; 10.001; 17.400; 18.548; 50.300; 70.345; 120.000; 199.999; 255.555; 1.000.100; 2.000.000; 999.999.999; 8.000.000.000.

ANSWERS. 1-trentecinc (35); cuarantesiet (47); cincuantevot (58); sessanteun (61); setantetrê (73); otantedoi (82); novantecuatri (94); cent e sîs (106); dusinte e cuarantecuatri (244); tresinte e cincuanteun (351); votcent e setantesiet (877); nûfcent e sessantedoi (962); mil e un (1.001); mil e dusinte (1.200); doi mil dusinte e vincjedoi (2.222); trê mil cuatricent e cincuantesîs (3.456); cuatri mil nûfcent e otantenûf (4.989); cinc mil cinccent e otantevot (5.588); dîs mil e un (10.001); disesiet mil e cuatricent (17.400); disevot mil cinccent e cuarantevot (18.548); cincuante mil e tresinte (50.300); setante mil tresinte e cuarantecinc (70.345); cent e vincj mil (120.000); cent e novantenûf mil nûfcent e novantenûf (199.999); dusinte e cincuantecinc mil cinccent e cincuantecinc (255.555); un milion e cent (1.000.100); doi milions (2.000.000); nûfcent e novantenûf milions e nûfcent e novantenûf mil nûfcent e novantenûf (999.999.999); vot miliarts (8.000.000.000).

Lesson XXXIX

Indi is the Friulian for thereof (of it, of them) and is customarily found in some contracted form. When followed by a word beginning with a vowel, it can take the form ind, for instance: ind àn fevelât (they have spoken thereof); when followed by a word beginning with a consonant, it can take the form int, for instance: l’om int mangjà (the man ate thereof); when preceded by a word ending in a vowel, it can take the form ’nd or ’nt, for instance: no ’nd ài fevelât (I have not spoken thereof); no ’nt fevelin cun me (they speak not thereof with me); si ’nd à viodûts doi (two of them have been seen). When suffixed to an infinitive, it can contract to nt, for instance: mangjânt (to eat thereof); fevelânt (to speak thereof); fânt (to make thereof); dânt (to give thereof); vênt (to have thereof); savênt (to know thereof). Ind è is read there is, there are; the negated no ’nd è is read there is not, there are not. New vocabulary: nissun (none, not any, not one); vonde (enough); cjatâ (to find); altri (other); za (already); une vore (much, many); dopo (afterwards); la aghe (water). The different forms of the adjective altri are: altri (masculine singular); altris (masculine plural); altre (feminine singular); altris (feminine plural).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: my brother has seven of them; my father has not any of them; I want five of them; I have enough of them; I have found ten others of them; he who has not thereof; that man has eaten of it; I want not to speak of it; I have already eaten much of it. 2-Translate to Friulian: there are many; there are other things that he has done; there is none like him; there are no others; there were others afterwards; there is no water.

ANSWERS. 1-gno fradi ind à siet; gno pari no ’nd à nissun; int vuei cinc; ind ài vonde; ind ài cjatâts altris dîs; chel che no ’nd à; chel om ind à mangjât; no vuei fevelânt; ind ài za mangjât une vore. 2-ind è une vore; ind è altris robis che al à fatis; no ’nd è nissun come lui; no ’nd è altris; ind è stâts altris dopo; no ’nd è aghe.

Lesson XL

The student has encountered a number of Friulian expressions employing (to have) + noun, where English has rather to be + adjective, namely: vê sêt (to be thirsty); vê fan (to be hungry); vê pôre (to be afraid); here now are a few others to be learnt: vê frêt (to be cold); vê cjalt (to be hot); vê sium (to be sleepy). Consider the following: o ài sium (I am sleepy); no ài sium (I am not sleepy); no ài plui sium (I am sleepy no more). The English no more takes the form no… plui in Friulian, with no placed before the verb and plui thereafter. Other constructions of the sort include: no… altri (no other, nothing else); no… nuie (nothing); no… nissun (no, none); no… ni… ni… (neither… nor); no… mai (never). Examples: no disin nuie (they say nothing); no âstu nissune pôre? (hast thou no fear)?; gno pari nol è plui (my father is no more, which is to say, my father is dead). New vocabulary: il timp (time); il fi (son); la fie (daughter); il re (king); la regjine (queen); podê (can, to be able). So does podê conjugate in the present indicative: o pues (I can); tu puedis (thou canst); al pues (he can); e pues (she can); o podìn (we can); o podês (you can); a puedin (they can). Negated, these are: no pues (I cannot); no tu puedis (thou canst not); nol pues or nol pò (he cannot); no pues or no pò (she cannot); no podìn (we cannot); no podês (you cannot); no puedin (they cannot).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I am cold no more; I have seen him no more; he has nothing anymore; they have no more time; I have nothing else to say; there is no other book in the box; she has seen nothing; we are neither hungry nor cold nor sleepy; hast thou no other son?; they have no other daughter; the king is no more; the queen is no more; I am neither cold nor hot; none of them has understood; none of you is to eat these fruits; they have never seen him; no man has ever spoken so; they are never sleepy; that man has never washed himself. 2-Translate to Friulian: he can do nothing else; they can see one another no more; these men can say nothing more.

ANSWERS. 1-no ài plui frêt; no lu ài plui viodût; nol à plui nuie; no àn plui timp; no ài altri ce dî; no ’nd è altri libri te scjatule; no à viodût nuie; no vin ni fan ni frêt ni sium; no âstu nissun altri fi?; no àn nissune altre fie; il re nol è plui; la regjine no je plui; no ài ni frêt ni cjalt; nissun di lôr nol à capît; nissun di vualtris nol à di mangjâ chestis pomis; no lu àn mai viodût; nissun om nol à mai fevelât cussì; no àn mai sium; chel om no si è mai lavât. 2-nol pò fâ nuie altri; no puedin viodisi plui; chescj oms no puedin dî plui nuie.

Lesson XLI

Of jessi (to be), the simple future conjugates so: o sarai (I shall be); tu sarâs (thou wilt be); al sarà (he will be); e sarà (she will be); o sarìn (we shall be); o sarês (you will be); a saran (they will be). Now of (to have), the same: o varai (I shall have); tu varâs (thou wilt have); al varà (he will have); e varà (she will have); o varìn (we shall have); o varês (you will have); a varan (they will have). Examples: al varà di lavâsi (he will have to wash himself); a saran là jù (they will be down there); cuant che tu sarâs vieli (when thou wilt be old). Of vieli, the four forms are: vieli (masculine singular); viei (masculine plural); viele (feminine singular); vielis (feminine plural). Now, as to the Friulian equivalent of the future perfect, it is formed by way of the addition of a past participle: a saran lâts vie (they will have left); a varan za mangjât (they will have already eaten); cuant che al varà fate la sô part (when he will have done his part). The student may study the following as models of the simple future: (i) fevelâ (to speak): o fevelarai (I shall speak), tu fevelarâs (thou wilt speak), al fevelarà (he will speak), fevelarà (she will speak), fevelarìn (we shall speak), fevelarês (you will speak), fevelaran (they will speak); (ii) tasê (to keep quiet): o tasarai (I shall keep quiet), tu tasarâs (thou wilt keep quiet), al tasarà (he will keep quiet), e tasarà (she will keep quiet), o tasarìn (we shall keep quiet), o tasarês (you will keep quiet), a tasaran (they will keep quiet); (iii) crodi (to believe): o crodarai (I shall believe), tu crodarâs (thou wilt believe), al crodarà (he will believe), crodarà (she will believe), crodarìn (we shall believe), crodarês (you will believe), crodaran (they will believe); (iv) capî (to understand): o capirai (I shall understand), tu capirâs (thou wilt understand), al capirà (he will understand), e capirà (she will understand), o capirìn (we shall understand), o capirês (you will understand), a capiran (they will understand). Capî can take an alternative conjugation in the simple future: o capissarai; tu capissarâs; al capissarà; e capissarà; o capissarìn; o capissarês; a capissaran.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I shall kill; thou wilt ask; he will wash; he will not wash; she will wash; she will not wash; we shall not kill; you will wash yourselves; they will not hide themselves. 2-Translate to Friulian: I shall take; thou wilt not take; he will leave; she will not leave; they will finish; we shall want; you will beat; I shall not put. 3-Translate to Friulian: I shall have put; thou wilt have done; he will not have taken; she will not have spoken; it will have been done; we shall not have understood; you will have had; these words will not have been said. 4-Translate to Friulian: when he will be old; when she will be old; when these men will be old; when these women will be old. 5-Provide the interrogative forms of jessi and in the simple future. 6-Translate to Friulian: will he not have done the work?; these men, shall we not have seen them?; these books, will they not have already been put into the boxes?

ANSWERS. 1-o coparai; tu domandarâs; al lavarà; nol lavarà; e lavarà; no lavarà; no coparìn; si lavarês; no si plataran. 2-o cjolarai; no tu cjolarâs; al larà vie; no larà vie; a finiran; o volarìn; o batarês; no metarai. 3-o varai metût; tu varâs fat; nol varà cjolt; no varà fevelât; al sarà stât fat; no varìn capît; o varês vût; chestis peraulis no saran stadis ditis. 4-cuant che al sarà vieli; cuant che e sarà viele; chescj oms cuant che a saran viei; chestis feminis cuant che a saran vielis. 5-(jessi) saraio?; sarâstu?; saraial?; saraie?; sarìno?; sarêso?; sarano?; (vê) varaio?; varâstu?; varaial?; varaie?; varìno?; varêso?; varano? 6-no varaial fate la vore?; chescj oms no ju varìno viodûts?; chescj libris no sarano za stâts metûts tes scjatulis?

Lesson XLII

This lesson will provide the student with more opportunities to review and practise the Friulian interrogative. Consider the following examples, all first-person singular: o feveli – fevelio? (I speak – do I speak?); o fevelavi – fevelavio? (I was speaking – was I speaking?); o ài fevelât – àio fevelât? (I have spoken – have I spoken?); o fevelarai – fevelaraio? (I shall speak – shall I speak?); o varai fevelât – varaio fevelât? (I shall have spoken – shall I have spoken?). From the foregoing examples, it is seen that the atonic pronoun shifts to the end of either the verb (fevelio, fevelavio…) or the auxiliary (àio, varaio…) to form the interrogative. The Friulian interrogative is also employed with interrogative words: cuant fevelarâstu? (when wilt thou speak?); parcè laraial vie? (why will he leave?); cui coparaial il purcit? (who will kill the pig?); dulà mangjavino il pan? (where were they eating the bread?); cemût faseviso la vore? (how were you doing the work?); ce volêso vê? (what will you have?, what do you want to have?); di cui ise cheste clâf? (whose key is this? [of whom is this key?]); cuâl libri âstu let? (which book hast thou read?). Let is the past participle of the verb lei (to read). Cuâl takes four forms: cuâl (masculine singular); cuâi (masculine plural); cuale (feminine singular); cualis (feminine plural). New vocabulary: vignî (to come); so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o ven (I come); tu vegnis (thou comest); al ven (he comes); e ven (she comes); o vignìn (we come); o vignîs (you come); a vegnin (they come).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: which shoes does he like?; what can I do for thee?; how can he be his son?; where art thou?; from where must I buy it?; who is coming with me?; why come you now?; why does she come with thee? 2-Translate to Friulian: how wast thou able to do it?; why has he come with them?; which star hast thou seen?; why has he left? 3-Translate to Friulian: of whom was he speaking?; who was doing these things?; who was seeing to this situation?; why wast thou not seeing to the house?; why was she putting the books into the boxes?; whose keys were those? 4-Translate to Friulian: which books wilt thou read?; of whom will she have fear?; from where will they take the water?; who will come with me?; why shall we not have to do it? 5-Translate to Friulian: what will they have wanted?; when shall we have finished?; why shall I not have been able to work with them?; when will you have read the book?

ANSWERS. 1-cualis scarpis i plasino?; ce puedio fâ par te?; cemût puedial jessi so fi?; dulà sêstu?; di dulà àio di comprâlu?; cui vegnial cun me?; parcè vignîso cumò?; parcè vegnie cun te? 2-cemût âstu podût fâlu?; parcè isal vignût cun lôr?; cuale stele âstu viodude?; parcè isal lât vie? 3-di cui fevelavial?; cui fasevial chestis robis?; cui viodevial di cheste situazion?; parcè no viodevistu de cjase?; parcè metevie i libris tes scjatulis?; di cui jerino chês clâfs? 4-cuâi libris leiarâstu?; di cui varaie pôre?; di dulà cjolarano la aghe?; cui vignaraial cun me?; parcè no varìno di fâlu? 5-ce varano volût?; cuant varìno finît?; parcè no varaio podût lavorâ cun lôr?; cuant varêso let il libri?

Lesson XLIII

Of jessi (to be), the present conditional conjugates so: o sarès (I should be); tu saressis (thou wouldest be); al sarès (he would be); e sarès (she would be); o saressin (we should be); o saressis (you would be); a saressin (they would be). Of (to have), the same is: o varès (I should have); tu varessis (thou wouldest have); al varès (he would have); e varès (she would have); o varessin (we should have); o varessis (you would have); a varessin (they would have). Examples: al sarès ridicul (it would be ridiculous); a varessin fan (they would be hungry [they would have hunger]); o varès di fâlu (I ought to do it). Now, as to the Friulian equivalent of the conditional perfect, it is formed by way of the addition of a past participle: tu varessis fevelât (thou wouldest have spoken); e sarès stade contente (she would have been happy); a varessin vût di vignî (they ought to have come). The following may be studied as models of the present conditional: (i) fevelâ (to speak): o fevelarès (I should speak), tu fevelaressis (thou wouldest speak), al fevelarès (he would speak), e fevelarès (she would speak), o fevelaressin (we should speak), o fevelaressis (you would speak), a fevelaressin (they would speak); (ii) tasê (to keep quiet): o tasarès (I should keep quiet), tu tasaressis (thou wouldest keep quiet), al tasarès (he would keep quiet), e tasarès (she would keep quiet), o tasaressin (we should keep quiet), o tasaressis (you would keep quiet), a tasaressin (they would keep quiet); (iii) crodi (to believe): o crodarès (I should believe), tu crodaressis (thou wouldest believe), al crodarès (he would believe), e crodarès (she would believe), o crodaressin (we should believe), o crodaressis (you would believe), a crodaressin (they would believe); (iv) capî (to understand): o capirès (I should understand), tu capiressis (thou wouldest understand), al capirès (he would understand), e capirès (she would understand), o capiressin (we should understand), o capiressis (you would understand), a capiressin (they would understand). Capî can take an alternative conjugation in the present conditional: o capissarès; tu capissaressis; al capissarès; e capissarès; o capissaressin; o capissaressis; a capissaressin.

EXERCISES. 1-Provide the interrogative forms of jessi in the present conditional. 2-Provide the interrogative forms of in the present conditional. 3-Provide the interrogative forms of fevelâ in the present conditional. 4-Translate to Friulian: those men would be happy; he would be sad; she would be angry; wouldest thou not have been tired?; they would be hungry; thou wouldest be afraid; he would be sleepy. 5-Translate to Friulian: he ought to study; he ought to have studied; I ought to be; I ought to have been; they ought to have it; they ought to have had it.

ANSWERS. 1-saressio?; saressistu?; saressial?; saressie?; saressino?; saressiso?; saressino? 2-varessio?; varessistu?; varessial?; varessie?; varessino?; varessiso?; varessino? 3-fevelaressio?; fevelaressistu?; fevelaressial?; fevelaressie?; fevelaressino?; fevelaressiso?; fevelaressino? 4-chei oms a saressin contents; al sarès avilît; e sarès inrabiade; no saressistu stât strac? (no saressistu stade strache?); a varessin fan; tu varessis pôre; al varès sium. 5-al varès di studiâ; al varès vût di studiâ; o varès di jessi (o varès di sei); o varès di jessi stât (o varès di sei stât); a varessin di vêlu; a varessin di vêlu vût.

Lesson XLIV

In colloquial Friulian, the recent past is employed to express such utterances as: I did or I have done; he said or he has said; we saw or we have seen; they came or they have come, and so on. Examples: o ài viodût chel om (I saw that man, I have seen that man); o vin fate la vore (we did the work, we have done the work); i libris ju àn metûts tes scjatulis (they put the books into the boxes, they have put the books into the boxes); al è lât vie (he left, he has left); la femine e à dit (the woman said, the woman has said). Now there exists another tense in Friulian, primarily encountered in good writing, such as in the narrative portions of the Friulian version of the Bible, employed to express the past tense. This is the simple past, and it is customarily avoided in speech, but it would be well for the student to come to recognise it. It must be noted that this simple past tense never expresses the equivalent of he has said, we have seen, they have put, and so on, but rather he said, we saw, they put. Consider: al à dit (he said, he has said); al disè (he said). Another example: al à fevelât (he spoke, he has spoken); al fevelà (he spoke). So does jessi (to be) conjugate in the simple past: o foi (I was); tu foris (thou wast); al fo (he was); e fo (she was); o forin (we were); o foris (you were); a forin (they were). So does (to have) conjugate in the same: o vei (I had); tu veris (thou hadst); al vè (he had); e vè (she had); o verin (we had); o veris (you had); a verin (they had). The following may be studied as models: (i) fevelâ (to speak): o fevelai (I spoke), tu fevelaris (thou spokest), al fevelà (he spoke), e fevelà (she spoke), o fevelarin (we spoke), o fevelaris (you spoke), a fevelarin (they spoke); (ii) tasê (to keep quiet): o tasei (I kept quiet), tu taseris (thou keptest quiet), al tasè (he kept quiet), e tasè (she kept quiet), o taserin (we kept quiet), o taseris (you kept quiet), a taserin (they kept quiet); (iii) crodi (to believe): o crodei (I believed), tu croderis (thou believedest), al crodè (he believed), e crodè (she believed), o croderin (we believed), o croderis (you believed), a croderin (they believed); (iv) capî (to understand): o capii (I understood), tu capiris (thou understoodest), al capì (he understood), e capì (she understood), o capirin (we understood), o capiris (you understood), a capirin (they understood). The student would also be wise to familiarise himself with the simple past of (to say), the use whereof is of high frequency in the Bible: o disei (I said); tu diseris (thou saidest); al disè (he said); e disè (she said); o diserin (we said); o diseris (you said); a diserin (they said).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian, as though in colloquial conversation: I saw him; they prayed with me; he killed the pig; I read the book; thou understoodest what I said; he did not come with them; she did not wash herself; I decided to read the book; didst thou decide to do the work?; did they give you the permission to speak?; he took the book; he was killed; the work was done by the priest. 2-Translate to Friulian, as though in the narration of the Bible: Jesus said; Jesus did; Moses took; Moses spoke; they said to him; they said to them; they killed twenty-five thousand men; he was killed; the work was done by Moses; he understood all that God had said to him.

ANSWERS. 1-lu ài viodût; a àn preât cun me; al à copât il purcit; o ài let il libri; tu âs capît ce che o ài dit; nol è vignût cun lôr; no si è lavade; o ài decidût di lei il libri; âstu decidût di fâ la vore?; us àno dât il permès di fevelâ?; al à cjolt il libri; al è stât copât; la vore e je stade fate dal predi. 2-Jesù al disè; Jesù al fasè; Mosè al cjolè; Mosè al fevelà; i diserin; ur diserin; a coparin vincjecinc mil oms; al fo copât; la vore e fo fate di Mosè; al capì dut ce che Diu i veve dit.

Lesson XLV

The subjunctive is employed to express wishes, doubts, conjectures, necessities, possibilities. For instance, the Friulian for it is so is al è cussì, but consider now the following: no vuei che al sedi cussì (I want not that it be so); no crodin che al sedi cussì (they believe not that it be so); bisugne che al sedi cussì (it need be so); par che al sedi cussì (that it may be so). Of jessi (to be), the present subjunctive conjugates so: che o sedi (that I may be); che tu sedis (that thou may be); che al sedi (that he may be); che e sedi (that she may be); che o sedin (that we may be); che o sedis (that you may be); che a sedin (that they may be). Of (to have), the present subjunctive conjugates so: che o vedi (that I may have); che tu vedis (that thou may have); che al vedi (that he may have); che e vedi (that she may have); che o vedin (that we may have); che o vedis (that you may have); che a vedin (that they may have). New vocabulary: pensâ (to think); pò stâi che (it may be that); sigûr (safe, sure). For information, the present indicative of crodi (to believe) conjugates so: o crôt (I believe); tu crodis (thou believest); al crôt (he believes); e crôt (she believes); o crodìn (we believe); o crodês (you believe); a crodin (they believe).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I want him to be content; we believe that he has left; in order that he be with you for ever; it is fundamental that it should be her who does it; let there be light; I shall give it to him that he may be safe; he wants this work to be done; I want it to be John who does this work that it may be done well. 2-Translate to Friulian: I want not that they should be hungry; give me this water that I may be thirsty no more; it may be that the lads have done it; he said it to me lest I be afraid; let me not have to remain like that; why think you that they have not already done it?; they cannot believe that he may be afraid; I believe that they have taken them.

ANSWERS. 1-o vuei che al sedi content; o crodìn che al sedi lât vie; par che al sedi cun vualtris par simpri; al è fondamentâl che e sedi jê a fâlu; che e sedi la lûs; jal darai par che al sedi sigûr; al vûl che e sedi fate cheste vore; o vuei che al sedi Zuan a fâ cheste vore par che e sedi ben fate. 2-no vuei che a vedin fan; dàmi cheste aghe par che no vedi plui sêt; pò stâi che i fantats lu vedin fat; mal à dit par che jo no vedi pôre; che jo no vedi di restâ cussì; parcè pensaiso che no lu vedin za fat?; no puedin crodi che al vedi pôre; o crôt che ju vedin cjolts.

Lesson XLVI

This lesson continues study of the present subjunctive. The following ought to be studied as models: (i) fevelâ (to speak): che o feveli (that I may speak), che tu fevelis (that thou may speak), che al feveli (that he may speak), che e feveli (that she may speak), che o fevelìn (that we may speak), che o fevelais (that you may speak), che a fevelin (that they may speak); (ii) tasê (to keep quiet): che o tasi (that I may keep quiet), che tu tasis (that thou may keep quiet), che al tasi (that he may keep quiet), che e tasi (that she may keep quiet), che o tasìn (that we may keep quiet), che o tasês (that you may keep quiet), che a tasin (that they may keep quiet); (iii) crodi (to believe): che o crodi (that I may believe), che tu crodis (that thou may believe), che al crodi (that he may believe), che e crodi (that she may believe), che o crodìn (that we may believe), che o crodês (that you may believe), che a crodin (that they may believe); (iv) capî (to understand): che o capissi (that I may understand), che tu capissis (that thou may understand), che al capissi (that he may understand), che e capissi (that she may understand), che o capìn (that we may understand), che o capîs (that you may understand), che a capissin (that they may understand). In the matter of the present subjunctive, an alternative conjugation is always possible: (i) fevelâ: che o feveledi, che tu feveledis, che al feveledi, che e feveledi, che o feveledin, che o feveledis, che a feveledin; (ii) tasê: che o tasedi, che tu tasedis, che al tasedi, che e tasedi, che o tasedin, che o tasedis, che a tasedin; (iii) crodi: che o crodedi, che tu crodedis, che al crodedi, che e crodedi, che o crodedin, che a crodedis, che a crodedin; (iv) capî: che o capedi, che tu capedis, che al capedi, che e capedi, che o capedin, che o capedis, che a capedin. Even jessi and vê, presented at the last lesson, have an alternative: (i) jessi: che o sei, che tu seis, che al sei, che e sei, che o sein, che o sês, che a sein; (ii) vê: che o vebi, che tu vebis, che al vebi, che e vebi, che o vebin, che o vebis, che a vebin. New vocabulary: la pazience (patience); sperâ (to hope); il soreli (sun); pussibil (possible); almancul (at least).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I want these books to be put into the boxes; I want not that my father and my mother be afraid; it is needed that thou have patience; is it possible that there not be at least ten of them? 2-Translate to Friulian: it is needed that thou find thy brother; it is needed that he put the books into the boxes; I hope that thou come with me; we hope that it will be sunny tomorrow; I shall give thee this book that thou be able to study Friulian; I want not that they die. 3-Translate to Friulian: let them come with thee; let him study Friulian; let it be done so.

ANSWERS. 1-chescj libris o vuei che a sedin (sein) metûts tes scjatulis; no vuei che gno pari e mê mari a vedin (vebin) pôre; bisugne che tu vedis (vebis) pazience; pussibil che no ’nt sedi (sei) almancul dîs? 2-bisugne che tu cjatis (cjatedis) to fradi; bisugne che al meti (metedi) i libris tes scjatulis; o speri che tu vegnis (vignedis) cun me; o sperìn che doman al sedi (sei) soreli; ti darai chest libri par che tu puedis (podedis) studiâ il furlan; no vuei che a muerin (muredin). 3-che a vegnin (vignedin) cun te; che al studii (studiedi) il furlan; che al sedi (sei) fat cussì.

Lesson XLVII

Consider now the difference between these utterances: mi pâr dal impussibil che al sedi cussì (it seems impossible to me that it may be so); mi pareve dal impussibil che al fos cussì (it seemed impossible to me that it might be so). The present subjunctive is employed in the first example (che al sedi);  the second takes rather the imperfect subjunctive (che al fos), for we are dealing with past time. Of jessi (to be), the imperfect subjunctive conjugates so: che o fos (that I might be); che tu fossis (that thou might be); che al fos (that he might be); che e fos (that she might be); che o fossin (that we might be); che o fossis (that you might be); che a fossin (that they might be). Of (to have), the imperfect subjunctive conjugates so: che o ves (that I might have); che tu vessis (that thou might have); che al ves (that he might have); che e ves (that she might have); che o vessin (that we might have); che o vessis (that you might have); che a vessin (that they might have). Of parê, it would also be well for the student to learn the following forms: al pâr (it seems); al pareve (it was seeming, it seemed); al parè (it seemed); al pararà (it will seem); al pararès (it would seem); the past participle is parût. New vocabulary: prin che (before; takes the subjunctive and is also expressed as prime che); masse (too); tart (late); vê voie di (to feel like, to be keen, to want); domandâsi (to wonder; literally, to ask oneself); slâf (Slav).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I have to see him before it is too late; I had to see him before it was too late; I shall tell thee nothing that thou may not fear; I told thee nothing that thou might not fear; he died before I was born; it seems to me that he is keen on doing it; it seemed to me that he was keen on doing it; I wonder what those things are; I wondered what those things were; for years it was thought that they were Slav peoples.

ANSWERS. 1-o ài di viodilu prin che al sedi masse tart; o vevi di viodilu prin che al fos masse tart; no ti disarai nuie par che no tu vedis pôre; no ti ài dit nuie par che no tu vessis pôre; al è muart prin che o fos nassût (nassude); mi pâr che al vedi voie di fâlu; mi pareve che al ves voie di fâlu; mi domandi ce che a sedin chês robis; mi domandavi ce che a fossin chês robis; par agns si à pensât che a fossin popui slâfs.

Lesson XLVIII

In continuation of the imperfect subjunctive, the following may be studied as models: (i) fevelâ (to speak): che o fevelàs (that I might speak), che tu fevelassis (that thou might speak), che al fevelàs (that he might speak), che e fevelàs (that she might speak), che o fevelassin (that we might speak), che o fevelassis (that you might speak), che a fevelassin (that they might speak); (ii) tasê (to keep quiet): che o tasès (that I might keep quiet), che tu tasessis (that thou might keep quiet), che al tasès (that he might keep quiet), che e tasès (that she might keep quiet), che o tasessin (that we might keep quiet), che o tasessis (that you might keep quiet), che a tasessin (that they might keep quiet); (iii) crodi (to believe): che o crodès (that I might believe), che tu crodessis (that thou might believe), che al crodès (that he might believe), che e crodès (that she might believe), che o crodessin (that we might believe), che o crodessis (that you might believe), che a crodessin (that they might believe); (iv) capî (to understand): che o capìs (that I might understand), che tu capissis (that thou might understand), che al capìs (that he might understand), che e capìs (that she might understand), che o capissin (that we might understand), che o capissis (that you might understand), che a capissin (that they might understand). New vocabulary: fâ in mût che (to make it so that); cjapâ frêt (to get cold); il turist (tourist; plural, i turiscj); jentrâ (to enter).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: he gave me this book that I might read it; he spoke to them in English that they might understand what he was saying; he did not want the men to do the work like that; they made it so that I might not get cold; the guardian made it so that the tourists might not enter into the lighthouse; he made it so that nobody might come to know it; they were already dead before he returned.

ANSWERS. 1-mi à dât chest libri par che lu leiès; ur à fevelât par inglês par che a capissin ce che al diseve; nol voleve che i oms a fasessin cussì la vore; a àn fat in mût che jo no cjapàs frêt; il vuardean al à fat in mût che i turiscj no jentrassin tal fâr; al à fat in mût che nissun nol vignìs a savêlu; a jerin za muarts prime che al tornàs.

Lesson XLIX

Of fâ, the gerund is fasint, which can be understood in English as meaning {in/by/whilst} doing. For example, al è lat cuintri di un comandament di Diu, fasint ce che nol leve means he went against a commandment of God, by doing that which was wrong. Study the formation of the following gerunds, that they may serve as models: fevelâ – fevelant (to speak – speaking); insegnâ – insegnant (to teach – teaching); tasê – tasint (to keep quiet – keeping quiet); podê – podint (to be able – being able); crodi – crodint (to believe – believing); meti – metint (to put – putting); capî – capint (to understand – understanding); finî – finint (to finish – finishing). Moreover, when a gerund is employed with stâ (to be, to stay, to dwell), the Friulian equivalent of the English continuous aspect is obtained: stâ fevelant (to be speaking); o stoi fevelant (I am speaking); al stave fevelant (he was speaking). In the present indicative, stâ conjugates so: o stoi (I am); tu stâs (thou art); al sta (he is); e sta (she is); o stin (we are); o stais (you are); a stan (they are). In the imperfect, stâ conjugates so: o stavi (I was); tu stavis (thou wast); al stave (he was); e stave (she was); o stavin (we were); o stavis (you were); a stavin (they were). For information, ce che nol leve in the example at the top of this lesson translates literally as that which was not going; that which ‘goes not’ in Friulian is wrong, ought not be done. Cuintri di from that same example is the Friulian for against. New vocabulary: la zornade (day); tant che (like, as); la âf (bee); biel che (just as); alc (something); gnûf (new); il vanzeli (gospel).

EXERCISES. 1-Provide the gerund of the following: spietâ (to wait for); passâ (to pass, to spend); tacâ (to start); rivâ (to arrive); (to go); (to give); temê (to fear); savê (to know); (to have); lei (to read); rispuindi (to respond); jessi (to be); vignî (to come); partî (to depart); (to say). 2-Translate to Friulian: starting from the 1960s; I would spend my days working like a bee; departing from Poland we arrived in Friûl; he entered the city by arriving from the forest; just as he was dying; by speaking to them of the situation; by giving us the permission to do it; they can understand this by reading the gospel of Mark; the men are waiting for something new; we were learning something new. 3-Of the adjective gnûf (new), provide the four different forms.

ANSWERS. 1-spietant; passant; tacant; rivant; lant; dant; temint; savint; vint; leint; rispuindint; jessint; vignint; partint; disint. 2-tacant dai agns 60 (sessante); o passavi lis mês zornadis lavorant tant che une âf; partint de Polonie o sin rivâts tal Friûl; al è rivât te citât rivant dal bosc; biel che al stave murint; fevelantjur de situazion; dantnus il permès di fâlu; chest a puedin capîlu leint il vanzeli di Marc; i oms a stan spietant alc di gnûf; o stavin imparant alc di gnûf. 3-gnûf (masculine singular); gnûfs (masculine plural); gnove (feminine singular); gnovis (feminine plural).