Friulian language lessons

The beginning student will find lessons below which he may use to learn the Friulian language on his own. These lessons are currently being written; they will be added to this page as they are completed, with a view to the production of some one hundred thereof over the course of the summer and autumn months of 2022. With highest recommendation: Friulian lectors to the astounding number of 1127 came together to read aloud every chapter of the Bible; all readings were recorded and put online, for the benefit of Friulians everywhere. The student may listen to the readings in Friulian and follow along with the Friulian text.

Lesson I

The Friulian demonstrative adjective chest means this. It takes four different forms: chest (this; masculine singular); chescj (these; masculine plural); cheste (this; feminine singular); chestis (these; feminine plural). Consider these examples: chest om (this man); chescj oms (these men); cheste femine (this woman); chestis feminis (these women). Om (man) is a masculine singular noun, wherefore the masculine singular chest is employed to say this man in Friulian: chest om. Oms (men) is a masculine plural noun, wherefore the masculine plural chescj is employed to say these men in Friulian: chescj oms. Femine (woman) is a feminine singular noun, wherefore the feminine singular cheste is employed to say this woman in Friulian: cheste femine. Feminis (women) is a feminine plural noun, wherefore the feminine plural chestis is employed to say these women in Friulian: chestis feminis.

EXERCISES. 1-Use the correct form of chest with the following nouns, all of which are masculine singular and plural: libri, libris (book; books); barcon, barcons (window, windows); fâr, fârs (lighthouse, lighthouses); pari, paris (father, fathers); fradi, fradis (brother, brothers). 2-Use the correct form of chest with the following nouns, all are of which are feminine singular or plural: scarpe, scarpis (shoe, shoes); stele, stelis (star, stars); robe, robis (thing, things); mari, maris (mother, mothers); sûr, sûrs (sister, sisters).

ANSWERS. 1-chest libri, chescj libris (this book, these books); chest barcon, chescj barcons (this window, these windows); chest fâr, chescj fârs (this lighthouse, these lighthouses); chest pari, chescj paris (this father, these fathers); chest fradi, chescj fradis (this brother, these brothers). 2-cheste scarpe, chestis scarpis (this shoe, these shoes); cheste stele, chestis stelis (this star, these stars); cheste robe, chestis robis (this thing, these things); cheste mari, chestis maris (this mother, these mothers); cheste sûr, chestis sûrs (this sister, these sisters).

Lesson II

The Friulian for the third-person singular is takes two different forms: al è (masculine); e je (feminine). The third-person plural are takes but one form: a son (masculine and feminine). The student is now able to form such utterances in Friulian: chest om al è (this man is); chescj oms a son (these men are); cheste femine e je (this woman is); chestis feminis a son (these women are). Friulian employs a mandatory, atonic pronoun: in al è, the atonic pronoun is al (masculine singular), whereas the verb is è; in e je, the atonic pronoun is e (feminine singular), whereas the verb is je; in a son, the atonic pronoun is a (masculine and feminine plural), whereas the verb is son.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: this book is; these books are; this window is; these windows are; this lighthouse is; these lighthouses are; this father is; these fathers are; this brother is; these brothers are. 2-Translate to Friulian: this shoe is; these shoes are; this star is; these stars are; this thing is; these things are; this mother is; these mothers are; this sister is; these sisters are.

ANSWERS. 1-chest libri al è; chescj libris a son; chest barcon al è; chescj barcons a son; chest fâr al è; chescj fârs a son; chest pari al è; chescj paris a son; chest fradi al è; chescj fradis a son. 2-cheste scarpe e je; chestis scarpis a son; cheste stele e je; chestis stelis a son; cheste robe e je; chestis robis a son; cheste mari e je; chestis maris a son; cheste sûr e je; chestis sûrs a son.

Lesson III

Friulian adjectives come in four forms; take, for instance, the adjective devot (devout), whose four forms are: devot (masculine singular); devots (masculine plural); devote (feminine singular); devotis (feminine plural). The student is now able to form such utterances in Friulian: chest om al è devot (this man is devout); chescj oms a son devots (these men are devout); cheste femine e je devote (this woman is devout); chestis feminis a son devotis (these women are devout). The negated form of al è is nol è; the negated form of e je is no je; the negated form of a son is no son. Consider the following examples: chest om nol è devot (this man is not devout); chescj oms no son devots (these men are not devout); cheste femine no je devote (this woman is not devout); chestis feminis no son devotis (these women are not devout). Learn the following Friulian adjectives before completing the exercises: zovin (young); viert (open); stret (tight).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: this father is young; these fathers are young; this mother is young; these mothers are young; this window is open; these windows are open; this shoe is tight; these shoes are tight. 2-Negate all Friulian translations from the foregoing exercise.

ANSWERS. 1-chest pari al è zovin; chescj paris a son zovins; cheste mari e je zovine; chestis maris a son zovinis; chest barcon al è viert; chescj barcons a son vierts; cheste scarpe e je strete; chestis scarpis a son stretis. 2-chest pari nol è zovin; chescj paris no son zovins; cheste mari no je zovine; chestis maris no son zovinis; chest barcon nol è viert; chescj barcons no son vierts; cheste scarpe no je strete; chestis scarpis no son stretis.

Lesson IV

The Friulian definite articles are: il, l’, i, la, lis; these are the equivalents of the English definite article the. The Friulian indefinite articles are: un, une; these are the equivalents of the English indefinite article a, an. Study the following examples, all of which use masculine nouns: un libri, il libri, i libris (a book, the book, the books); un barcon, il barcon, i barcons (a window, the window, the windows); un fâr, il fâr, i fârs (a lighthouse, the lighthouse, the lighthouses); un pari, il pari, i paris (a father, the father, the fathers); un fradi, il fradi, i fradis (a brother, the brother, the brothers). From the foregoing examples, the student will note that il and un are employed with masculine singular nouns, whereas i is employed with masculine plural ones. With a masculine singular noun beginning with a vowel, the definite article employed is not il but l’, as in the following examples: l’aiar (the air); l’eroi (the hero); l’imni (the anthem); l’om (the man); l’ûf (the egg). Consider now the following examples, all of which use feminine nouns: une femine, la femine, lis feminis (a woman, the woman, the women); une scarpe, la scarpe, lis scarpis (a shoe, the shoe, the shoes); une stele, la stele, lis stelis (a star, the star, the stars); une mari, la mari, lis maris (a mother, the mother, the mothers); une sûr, la sûr, lis sûrs (a sister, the sister, the sisters). From the foregoing examples, the student will note that la and une are employed with feminine singular nouns, whereas lis is employed with feminine plural ones.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the book is; the books are; the lighthouse is; the lighthouses are; the brother is; the brothers are; the man is; the men are; the egg is; the eggs are. 2-Translate to Friulian: the woman is; the women are; the shoe is; the shoes are; the star is; the stars are; the mother is; the mothers are; the sister is; the sisters are. 3-Translate to Friulian: a man is; a man is not; a father is; a father is not; a brother is; a brother is not; a mother is; a mother is not; a sister is; a sister is not. 4-Translate to Friulian: the men are devout; the men are not devout; the windows are open; the windows are not open; the shoes are tight; the shoes are not tight.

ANSWERS. 1-il libri al è; i libris a son; il fâr al è; i fârs a son; il fradi al è; i fradis a son; l’om al è; i oms a son; l’ûf al è; i ûfs a son. 2-la femine e je; lis feminis a son; la scarpe e je; lis scarpis a son; la stele e je; lis stelis a son; la mari e je; lis maris a son; la sûr e je; lis sûrs a son. 3-un om al è; un om nol è; un pari al è; un pari nol è; un fradi al è; un fradi nol è; une mari e je; une mari no je; une sûr e je; une sûr no je. 4-i oms a son devots; i oms no son devots; i barcons a son vierts; i barcons no son vierts; lis scarpis a son stretis; lis scarpis no son stretis.

Lesson V

The Friulian subject pronouns are: jo (I; first-person singular); tu (thou; second-person singular); lui (he; masculine, third-person singular); (she; feminine, third-person singular); nualtris (we; first-person plural); vualtris (you; second-person plural); lôr (they; third-person plural). Of nualtris, variants are noaltris and nô, whereas of vualtris, variants are voaltris and vô. Tu, which aligns with the traditional English use of singular thou (but is in no way outmoded in Friulian whatsoever), is used when addressing a single person on a familiar level, whereas vualtris, which aligns with the traditional English use of plural you, is used when addressing more than one person on a familiar level. All the foregoing pronouns are tonic: these are employed to give stress, otherwise they are customarily omitted; the atonic pronouns and the verb suffice to indicate which grammatical person is in question. The atonic pronouns are: o (first-person singular); tu (second-person singular), al (masculine, third-person singular), e (feminine, third-person singular), o (first-person plural), o (second-person plural), a (third-person plural). Study the present indicative of jessi (to be), also expressed in Friulian as sei, which, in the case of this verb, is irregular: jo o soi (I am); tu tu sês (thou art); lui al è (he is); jê e je (she is); nualtris o sin (we are); vualtris o sês (you are); lôr a son (they are). Now consider the following, taking note of the presence or absence of tonic pronouns: o soi furlan (I am Friulian); tu sês polac (thou art Polish); jo o soi furlan, ma tu tu sês polac (I am Friulian, but thou art Polish). Take another example: al è vieli (he is old); e je zovine (she is young); lui al è vieli, ma jê e je zovine (he is old, but she is young). Study the four forms of the adjective vieli (old) before completing the exercises: vieli (masculine singular); viele (feminine singular); viei (masculine plural); vielis (feminine plural).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I am old (male); thou art young (female); he is Friulian; she is Friulian; we are Friulian (mixed gender); you are old (females); they are devout (males). 2-Translate to Friulian: he is Polish, but she is Friulian; I am old, but thou art young (females); we are young, but you are old (males).

ANSWERS. 1-o soi vieli; tu sês zovine; al è furlan; e je furlane; o sin furlans; o sês vielis; a son devots. 2-lui al è polac, ma jê e je furlane; jo o soi viele, ma tu tu sês zovine; nualtris o sin zovins, ma vualtris o sês viei.

Lesson VI

To negate the present indicative forms of jessi provided in the foregoing lesson, the student need only omit the atonic pronoun and add no. The two exceptions to this rule are: in the second-person singular, where the atonic pronoun tu is maintained, with no taking its position before it; in the masculine, third-person singular, where the atonic pronoun al contracts with no to form nol. Study the following: jo o soi, jo no soi (I am, I am not); tu tu sês, tu no tu sês (thou art, thou art not); lui al è, lui nol è (he is, he is not); jê e je, jê no je (she is, she is not); nualtris o sin, nualtris no sin (we are, we are not); vualtris o sês, vualtris no sês (you are, you are not); lôr a son, lôr no son (they are, they are not). Given that the tonic pronouns are customarily omitted, all of the foregoing may also be expressed thus in Friulian: o soi, no soi (I am, I am not); tu sês, no tu sês (thou art, thou art not); al è, nol è (he is, he is not); e je, no je (she is, she is not); o sin, no sin (we are, we are not); o sês, no sês (you are, you are not); a son, no son (they are, they are not). Learn the four forms of the Friulian adjective for white before completing the exercises: blanc (masculine singular); blancs (masculine plural); blancje (feminine singular); blancjis (feminine plural).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the window is open; the window is not open; this man is devout; this man is not devout; these women are old; these women are not old; I am not old (female); thou art not young (male); he is not Friulian; she is not Polish; we are not young (males); you are not devout (females); they are not Friulian (mixed gender). 2-Translate to English: chestis feminis a son furlanis, ma chescj oms no son polacs; chescj paris a son viei, e chestis maris a son zovinis; chescj fârs a son blancs; chestis scarpis no son blancjis.

ANSWERS. 1-il barcon al è viert; il barcon nol è viert; chest om al è devot; chest om nol è devot; chestis feminis a son vielis; chestis feminis no son vielis; no soi viele; no tu sês zovin; nol è furlan; no je polache; no sin zovins; no sês devotis; no son furlans. 2-these women are Friulian, but these men are not Polish; these fathers are old, and these mothers are young; these lighthouses are white; these shoes are not white.

Lesson VII

As the student has by now come to know, Friulian adjectives take four forms. Consider, for instance, the adjective brut, meaning ugly; its four forms are: brut (masculine singular); bruts (masculine plural); brute (feminine singular); brutis (feminine plural). The student is now able to make such utterances in Friulian: chest om al è brut (this man is ugly); chescj oms no son bruts (these men are not ugly); cheste femine no je brute (this woman is not ugly); chestis feminis a son brutis (these women are ugly). Now take the adjective sant, meaning holy, whose four forms are: sant (masculine singular); sants (masculine plural); sante (feminine singular); santis (feminine plural). Consider the following examples, where the adjective modifies a noun: lûc sant (holy place); lûcs sants (holy places); robe sante (holy thing); robis santis (holy things).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: this place is holy; these places are not holy; this lighthouse is not ugly; these lighthouses are ugly; this thing is holy; these things are not holy; the man is Polish; these men are Polish; the woman is not Polish; these women are not Polish; young woman; young women; devout woman; devout women; devout man; devout men; open window; open windows. 2-Say whether the speaker is male or female: o soi furlane; o soi zovine; no soi brut; no soi devote; o soi vieli; o soi polache. 3-Provide as many of the four forms of these adjectives as possible, in the order of masculine singular, masculine plural, feminine singular and feminine plural, and learn the unknown forms from the answers: complet (complete); neri (black); vert (green); platât (hidden); trist (wicked); just (righteous); fedêl (faithful); leâl (loyal); religjôs (religious); regolâr (regular); irlandês (Irish).

ANSWERS. 1-chest lûc al è sant; chescj lûcs no son sants; chest fâr nol è brut; chescj fârs a son bruts; cheste robe e je sante; chestis robis no son santis; l’om al è polac; chescj oms a son polacs; la femine no je polache; chestis feminis no son polachis; femine zovine; feminis zovinis; femine devote; feminis devotis; om devot; oms devots; barcon viert; barcons vierts. 2-female; female; male; female; male; female. 3-complet, complets, complete, completis; neri, neris, nere, neris; vert, verts, verde, verdis; platât, platâts, platade, platadis; trist, triscj, triste, tristis; just, juscj, juste, justis; fedêl, fedêi, fedêl, fedêls; leâl, lêâi, leâl, leâls; religjôs, religjôs, religjose, religjosis; regolâr, regolârs, regolâr, regolârs; irlandês, irlandês, irlandese, irlandesis.

Lesson VIII

The Friulian demonstrative adjective chel means that. It takes four different forms: chel (that; masculine singular); chei (those; masculine plural); chê (that; feminine singular); chês (those; feminine plural). Consider these examples: chel om (that man); chei oms (those men); chê femine (that woman); chês feminis (those women).

EXERCISES. 1-Use the correct form of chel with the following nouns, all of which are masculine singular and plural: fantat, fantats (lad, lads); pancôr, pancôrs (baker, bakers); predi, predis (priest, priests); pît, pîts (foot, feet); cunfin, cunfins (border, borders). 2-Use the correct form of chel with the following nouns, all are of which are feminine singular and plural: tiere, tieris (land, lands); spade, spadis (sword, swords); man, mans (hand, hands); cjase, cjasis (house, houses); citât, citâts (city, cities). 3-Translate to Friulian: that lighthouse is not ugly; those lighthouses are white; those priests are devout; that house is white; those women are young; those lands are Irish; this man is Friulian, but that woman is Polish.

ANSWERS. 1-chel fantat, chei fantats (that lad, those lads); chel pancôr, chei pancôrs (that baker, those bakers); chel predi, chei predis (that priest, those priests); chel pît, chei pîts (that foot, those feet); chel cunfin, chei cunfins (that border, those borders). 2-chê tiere, chês tieris (that land, those lands); chê spade, chês spadis (that sword, those swords); chê man, chês mans (that hand, those hands); chê cjase, chês cjasis (that house, those houses); chê citât, chês citâts (that city, those cities). 3-chel fâr nol è brut; chei fârs a son blancj; chei predis a son devots; chê cjase e je blancje; chês feminis a son zovinis; chês tieris a son irlandesis; chest om al è furlan, ma chê femine e je polache.

Lesson IX

Learn to count from zero to ten in Friulian: zero (0), un (1), doi (2), trê (3), cuatri (4), cinc (5), sîs (6), siet (7), vot (8), nûf (9), dîs (10). Of these, only un and doi are specifically masculine forms; their feminine equivalents are une and dôs. For instance, we speak in Friulian of un fâr (one lighthouse), but une spade (one sword); and we speak of doi fârs (two lighthouses), but dôs spadis (two swords), given that fâr is a masculine noun and spade is a feminine one. The other numerals may used with either a masculine or feminine noun: trê oms (three men), trê feminis (three women), cuatri fradis (four brothers), cuatri sûrs (four sisters), and so on.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: one man; one woman; two priests; two cities; three lads; three houses; four borders; four things; five places; five sisters; six brothers; six mothers; seven fathers; seven stars; eight books; eight shoes; nine windows; nine lands; ten eggs; ten hands. 2-Translate to Friulian: these two books; these two women; those three brothers; those three houses; these five priests are Friulian; those seven things are holy; those ten Irish lads are righteous.

ANSWERS. 1-un om; une femine; doi predis; dôs citâts; trê fantats; trê cjasis; cuatri cunfins; cuatri robis; cinc lûcs; cinc sûrs; sîs fradis; sîs maris; siet paris; siet stelis; vot libris; vot scarpis; nûf barcons; nûf tieris; dîs ûfs; dîs mans. 2-chescj doi libris; chestis dôs feminis; chei trê fradis; chês trê cjasis; chescj cinc predis a son furlans; chês siet robis a son santis; chei dîs fantats irlandês a son juscj.

Lesson X

Study the present indicative of (to have), which, in the case of this verb, is irregular: jo o ài (I have); tu tu âs (thou hast); lui al à (he has); jê e à (she has); nualtris o vin (we have); vualtris o vês (you have); lôr a àn (they have). Consider a number of examples: o vin une mari devote (we have a devout mother); al à dôs cjasis (he has two houses); e à trê fradis (she has three brothers). Nissun is the equivalent of the English any in negated sentences, with nissune for feminine form: no ài nissun fradi (I have not any brother); no tu âs nissun libri (thou hast not any book); nol à nissune sûr (he has not any sister); no àn nissune cjase (they have not any house). In English, one speaks of being hungry or thirsty; in Friulian, one speaks rather of having hunger or thirst. Consider the following: o ài fan (I am hungry; literally, I have hunger); o ài sêt (I am thirsty; literally, I have thirst). Both fan (hunger) and sêt (thirst) are masculine nouns.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I have six brothers; thou hast not any sister; he has not any brother; she has not any book; you have a white house; he is hungry; you are thirsty; thou art not hungry; they are not thirsty. 2-Say whether nissun or nissune is to be employed with the following nouns: fâr; barcon; predi; stele; ûf; citât.

ANSWERS. 1-o ài sîs fradis; no tu âs nissune sûr; nol à nissun fradi; no à nissun libri; o vês une cjase blancje; al à fan; o vês sêt; no tu âs fan; no àn sêt. 2-nissun; nissun; nissun; nissune; nissun; nissune.

Lesson XI

In the interrogative, Friulian shifts the atonic pronoun to the end of the verb. Consider first the interrogative of jessi, present indicative: o soi; soio? (I am; am I?); tu sês; sêstu? (thou art; art thou?); al è; isal? (he is; is he?); e je; ise? (she is; is she?); o sin; sino? (we are; are we?); o sês; sêso? (you are; are you?); a son; sono? (they are; are they?). Of isal and ise, variants are esal and ese. A number of examples: sêstu religjôs? (art thou religious?); isal furlan? (is he Friulian?); sêso irlandesis? (are you Irishwomen?); sono triscj? (are they wicked?). Consider now the interrogative of vê, present indicative: o ài; aio? (I have; have I?); tu âs; âstu? (thou hast; hast thou?); al à; aial? (he has; has he?); e à; aie? (she has; has she?); o vin; vino? (we have; have we?); o vês; vêso? (you have; have you?); a àn; àno? (they have; have they?). A number of examples: aial une sûr? (has he a sister?); no àno nissune cjase? (have they not any house?); âstu sêt? (art thou thirsty?; literally, hast thou thirst?).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to English: aio un fradi?; àno fan?; sêstu polac?; isal viert il barcon?; ise blancje la cjase?; sono juscj chei fantats talians? 2-Translate to Friulian: hast thou not any brother?; has this city no holy place?; are those two Friulian sisters devout?; are those three Italian brothers thirsty?

ANSWERS. 1-have I a brother?; are they hungry?; art thou Polish?; is the window open?; is the house white?; are those Italian lads righteous? 2-no âstu nissun fradi?; no aie cheste citât nissun lûc sant?; sono devotis chês dôs sûrs furlanis?; àno sêt chei trê fradis talians?

Lesson XII

The Friulian fevelâ means to speak. In the present indicative, it takes the following conjugation (tonic pronouns have been omitted): o feveli (I speak); tu fevelis (thou speakest); al fevele (he speaks); e fevele (she speaks); o fevelìn (we speak); o fevelais (you speak); a fevelin (they speak). The student is to take note of the verb endings for each person, which is to say -i; -is; -e; -e; -ìn; -ais; -in; these endings are employed with regular verbs whose infinitive ends in -â, such as fevelâ (to speak), copâ (to kill) and scoltâ (to listen). In the matter of pronunciation, the first-person plural fevelìn is pronounced with stress on the final syllable, whereas the third-person plural fevelin is pronounced with stress on the penultimate. Learn the following: fevelâ furlan (to speak Friulian); fevelâ par furlan (to speak in Friulian); jessi bon di fevelâ furlan (to be able to speak Friulian; literally, to be good at speaking Friulian). Bon is an adjective meaning good; its four forms are: bon (masculine singular); bogns (masculine plural); buine (feminine singular); buinis (feminine plural). Learn also: simpri (always, ever).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I speak Friulian; thou speakest Friulian; he speaks Friulian; she speaks Friulian; we speak Friulian; you speak Friulian; they speak Friulian. 2-Negate all translations from the foregoing exercise. 3-Translate to Friulian: dost thou speak Friulian?; does he speak Friulian?; does she speak Friulian?; do you speak Friulian?; do they speak Friulian? 4-Translate to Friulian, using male forms of adjective: I am able to speak Friulian; thou art not able to speak Friulian; is he able to speak Friulian?; we are not able to speak Friulian; are you able to speak Friulian?; they are not able to speak Friulian. 5-Translate to Friulian, using female forms of adjective: she is able to speak Friulian; is she able to speak Friulian?; is she not able to speak Friulian?; are you not able to speak Friulian?; they are not able to speak Friulian. 6-Translate to Friulian: I always speak in Friulian; do I always speak in Friulian?; does he always speak in Friulian?; do we not always speak in Friulian?; they do not always speak in Friulian. 7-Translate to Friulian: I kill; thou killest not; he listens; he listens not; she listens not; we kill; you kill; they listen not.

ANSWERS. 1-o feveli furlan; tu fevelis furlan; al fevele furlan; e fevele furlan; o fevelìn furlan; o fevelais furlan; a fevelin furlan. 2-no feveli furlan; no tu fevelis furlan; nol fevele furlan; no fevele furlan; no fevelìn furlan; no fevelais furlan; no fevelin furlan. 3-fevelistu furlan?; fevelial furlan?; fevelie furlan?; fevelaiso furlan?; fevelino furlan? 4-o soi bon di fevelâ furlan; no tu sês bon di fevelâ furlan; isal bon di fevelâ furlan?; no sin bogns di fevelâ furlan; sêso bogns di fevelâ furlan?; no son bogns di fevelâ furlan. 5-e je buine di fevelâ furlan; ise buine di fevelâ furlan?; no ise buine di fevelâ furlan?; no sêso buinis di fevelâ furlan?; no son buinis di fevelâ furlan. 6-o feveli simpri par furlan; fevelio simpri par furlan?; fevelial simpri par furlan?; no fevelìno simpri par furlan?; no fevelin simpri par furlan. 7-o copi; no tu copis; al scolte; nol scolte; no scolte; o copìn; o copais; no scoltin.

Lesson XIII

The Friulian capî means to understand. The student will note that it takes its ending in -î, unlike the infinitives encountered in the last lesson, which end in -â; it is for this reason that capî conjugates differently to fevelâ, copâ and scoltâ. In the present indicative, capî takes the following conjugation: o capìs (I understand); tu capissis (thou understandest); al capìs (he understands); e capìs (she understands); o capìn (we understand); o capîs (you understand); a capissin (they understand). Consider now the following: o capìs; lu capìs; no lu capìs (I understand; I understand it; I understand it not); tu capissis; tu lu capissis; no tu lu capissis (thou understandest; thou understandest it; thou understandest it not). Names of languages: il furlan (Friulian); il talian (Italian); il polac (Polish); l’inglês (English); il rus (Russian).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: do I understand Friulian?; dost thou understand Italian?; does he understand Polish?; does she understand English?; do we understand Russian?; do you understand Friulian?; do they understand Italian? 2-he understands it and speaks it; he does not understand it and does not speak it; she understands it but does not speak it; I do not understand it and do not speak it; we understand it but do not speak it; they understand it and speak it; they do not speak it but do understand it.

ANSWERS. 1-il furlan lu capissio?; il talian lu capissistu?; il polac lu capissial?; l’inglês lu capissie?; il rus lu capìno?; il furlan lu capîso?; il talian lu capissino? 2-lu capìs e lu fevele; no lu capìs e no lu fevele; lu capìs ma no lu fevele; no lu capìs e no lu feveli; lu capìn ma no lu fevelìn; lu capissin e lu fevelin; no lu fevelin ma lu capissin.

Lesson XIV

The student is reminded that means to have; when this is followed by di and an infinitive, sense of obligation is conveyed. In this way, the Friulian vê di aligns with the English to have to. Consider these examples: o ài di fevelâ (I have to speak; I must speak); al à di scoltâ (he has to listen; he must listen); o vin di capî (we have to understand; we must understand). Learn the following: lavorâ (to work); studiâ (to study); lâ vie (to leave), restâ (to remain). In the case of lâ vie, the student will note that means to go, whereas vie means away; taken together, lâ vie means to leave. Learn also: la lenghe (language); cumò (now).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I have to work; thou hast to study; he has to leave; she has to remain; we have to work; you have to study; they have to leave. 2-Translate to Friulian: have I now to work?; hast thou now to study?; has he now to leave?; has she now to remain?; have we now to work?; have you now to study?; have they now to leave? 3-Translate to Friulian: I have not to remain; thou hast not work; he has not to study; she has not to leave; we have not to remain; you have not to work; they have not to study. 4-Translate to Friulian: I must study this language; thou must remain in this city; these five Irish lads must leave; must you speak in Friulian?; must they not understand this language?; thou must not listen to that man.

ANSWERS. 1-o ài di lavorâ; tu âs di studiâ; al à di lâ vie; e à di restâ; o vin di lavorâ; o vês di studiâ; a àn di lâ vie. 2-aio cumò di lavorâ?; âstu cumò di studiâ?; aial cumò di lâ vie?; aie cumò di restâ?; vino cumò di lavorâ?; vêso cumò di studiâ?; àno cumò di lâ vie? 3-no ài di restâ; no tu âs di lavorâ; nol à di studiâ; no à di lâ vie; no vin di restâ; no vês di lavorâ; no àn di studiâ. 4-o ài di studiâ cheste lenghe; tu âs di restâ in cheste citât; chescj cinc fantats irlandês a àn di lâ vie; vêso di fevelâ par furlan?; no àno di capî cheste lenghe?; no tu âs di scoltâ chel om.

Lesson XV

Finî, meaning to finish, takes its conjugation in the present indicative after the manner of capî, seen at lesson XIII. Learn it now: o finìs (I finish); tu finissis (thou finishest); al finìs (he finishes); e finìs (she finishes); o finìn (we finish); o finîs (you finish); a finissin (they finish). The Friulian for year is the masculine noun an; in the plural, it takes the form agns (years), so that, for instance, one year is un an, and two years is doi agns. Learn: cuant? (when?); vuê (today); finî i agns (to be one’s birthday; literally, to finish the years).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: today is his birthday; today is her birthday; today is his eighth birthday; today is her ninth birthday; when is my birthday?; when is thy birthday?; when is his birthday?; when is her third birthday? 2-Translate to Friulian: I finish at four; he finishes at three; she finishes at seven; we finish at two; do they finish at five?; do you not finish today at eight?; when dost thou finish?; when do they finish? 3-Recite the present indicative conjugation of fevelâ, scoltâ, capî, finî. 4-Negate the present indicative conjugation of finî.

ANSWERS. 1-vuê al finìs i agns; vuê e finìs i agns; vuê al finìs vot agns; vuê e finìs nûf agns; cuant finissio i agns?; cuant finissistu i agns?; cuant finissial i agns? cuant finissie trê agns? 2-o finìs a cuatri; al finìs a trê; e finìs a siet; o finìn a dôs; finissino a cinc?; no finîso vuê a vot?; cuant finissistu?; cuant finissino? 3-fevelâ (see lesson XII); scoltâ (o scolti; tu scoltis; al scolte; e scolte; o scoltìn; o scoltais; a scoltin); capî (see lesson XIII); finî (see current lesson). 4-no finìs; no tu finissis; nol finìs; no finìs; no finìn; no finîs; no finissin.

Lesson XVI

The Friulian plasê means to be pleasing; this is a regular verb whose infinitive takes its ending in -ê, unlike the regular verbs encountered heretofore, whose infinitives have taken for ending or -î. Of plasê, study the present indicative conjugation: o plâs (I am pleasing); tu plasis (thou art pleasing); al plâs (he is pleasing, it is pleasing); e plâs (she is pleasing, it is pleasing); o plasìn (we are pleasing); o plasês (you are pleasing); a plasin (they are pleasing). Study also these indirect object pronouns: mi (to me); ti (to thee); i (to him, to her, to it); nus (to us); us (to you); ur (to them). Consider now these examples of use: al plâs; ur plâs (it is pleasing; it is pleasing to them); a plasin; mi plasin (they are pleasing; they are pleasing to me); a plasin; no ti plasin (they are pleasing; they are not pleasing to thee); mi plâs chest libri (this book is pleasing to me, which is to say, I like this book); no i plâs chê musiche (that music is not pleasing to him, which is to say, he does not like that music); ur plasin chestis dôs citâts (these two cities are pleasing to them, which is to say, they like these two cities).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I like this house; dost thou like that lighthouse?; he does not like these shoes; John likes not these shoes; Mary likes those white shoes; does Matthew like those lighthouses?; Mark likes this sword; does Mark like these swords?; we like to speak when we work; do they like this city?; do they like that book?; art thou speaking to me in Slovene?; I am not speaking to thee in Slovene, but in Friulian.

ANSWERS. 1-mi plâs cheste cjase; ti plasial chel fâr?; no i plasin chestis scarpis; no i plasin chestis scarpis a Zuan; i plasin chês scarpis blancjis a Marie; i plasino chei fârs a Matieu?; i plâs cheste spade a Marc; i plasino chestis spadis a Marc?; nus plâs fevelâ cuant che o lavorìn; ur plasie cheste citât?; ur plasial chel libri?; mi fevelistu par sloven?; no ti feveli par sloven, ma par furlan.

Lesson XVII

Savê is Friulian for to know; this is an irregular verb, wherefore it follows not the conjugation model of plasê encountered at the last lesson. Study its present indicative conjugation: o sai (I know); tu sâs (thou knowest); al sa (he knows); e sa (she knows); o savìn (we know); o savês (you know); a san (they know). Learn the following new vocabulary: doman (tomorrow); il siopar (strike); ben (well); cualchidun (anyone, someone); ce (what); (to do); (to say, to tell). The student will heed the pronunciation note provided after the answers below.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I know that today is thy birthday; I know that tomorrow there is a strike; I know that this book is good; thou knowest not what thou hast; knowest thou that those lads are Irish?; knowest thou not that these women are devout?; he knows how to speak well; he knows how to speak two languages; does anyone know that Luke is able to speak Latin?; she knows well that I have not any brother; we know not what to do; we know not what to tell thee; you know what it is and what you have to do; they know not what to tell me; know they not what to tell you?; those two Polish lads know not well what they have to tell us.

ANSWERS. 1-o sai che vuê tu finissis i agns; o sai che doman al è un siopar; o sai che al è bon chest libri; no tu sâs ce che tu âs; sâstu che a son irlandês chei fantats?; no sâstu che a son devotis chestis feminis?; al sa fevelâ ben; al sa fevelâ dôs lenghis; cualchidun saial che Luche al è bon di fevelâ latin?; e sa ben che no ài nissun fradi; no savìn ce fâ; no savìn ce dîti; o savês ce che al è e ce che o vês di fâ; no san ce dîmi; no sano ce dîus?; chei doi fantats polacs no san ben ce che a àn di dînus. Pronunciation note: In speech, che al contracts to ch’al (sounds like kal); che a contracts to ch’a (sounds like ka); che o contracts to ch’o (sounds like ko). For instance, o sai che al è bon is pronounced not in six syllables but five: o sai ch’al è bon.

Lesson XVIII

Cui is Friulian for who. Consider: cui sêstu? (who art thou?); cui isal? (who is he?); cui ise? (who is she?). In the foregoing examples, the interrogative form of verb is employed with the interrogative cui. This same effect, as the student has already encountered, does the interrogative cuant have on the verb: cuant finissial i agns? (when is his birthday?); cuant fevelistu par furlan? (when speakest thou in Friulian?). When cui and cuant are employed as relative pronouns, they are followed rather by che, without the interrogative form of verb, for it is no longer matter of a question: mi plâs fevelâ cuant che o lavori (I like to speak when I work); no sai cui che al è (I know not who he is). New vocabulary: il cjaliâr (shoemaker); il becjâr (butcher); cun (with).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: who is that shoemaker?; knowest thou who that shoemaker is?; who are those butchers?; I know not who those butchers are; when have you to speak in Friulian?; when is it that you must speak in English?; when must that lad to listen to these men?; who is it that must speak with this monk?; I know not who thou art; thou knowest not who thou art; who are those who understand this language?; we know not who those men are who understand this language; he who is Friulian speaks in Friulian.

ANSWERS. 1-cui isal chel cjaliâr?; sâstu cui che al è chel cjaliâr?; cui sono chei becjârs?; no sai cui che a son chei becjârs; cuant vêso di fevelâ par furlan?; cuant isal che o vês di fevelâ par inglês?; cuant aial chel fantat di scoltâ chescj oms?; cui isal che al à di fevelâ cun chest munic?; no sai cui che tu sês; no tu sâs cui che tu sês; cui sono chei che a capissin cheste lenghe?; no savìn cui che a son chei oms che a capissin cheste lenghe; cui che al è furlan al fevele par furlan.

Lesson XIX

Learn the following, some of which the student has already encountered: ce (what), cemût (how), cuant (when), cui (who), dulà (where), parcè (why), trop (how much, how many). Of dulà, variants are and indulà. Trop knows four different forms: trop (masculine singular); trops (masculine plural), trope (feminine singular); tropis (feminine plural); the masculine plural trops is pronounced trôs. The Friulian tasê means to keep quiet; its conjugation follows that of plasê; study it now, in its present indicative form: o tâs (I keep quiet); tu tasis (thou keepest quiet); al tâs (he keeps quiet); e tâs (she keeps quiet); o tasìn (we keep quiet); o tasês (you keep quiet); a tasin (they keep quiet). A number of new vocabulary items have been incorporated into the exercises for the student to learn.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: why keepest thou quiet?; why does that lad not keep quiet?; what hast thou that thou keepest quiet?; who are those monks who keep quiet?; how is it possible?; when is it that I am to keep quiet?; where is it that we must listen to that man?; of these French lighthouses how many do you like?; of those women how many are Irish?; of these Canadian priests how many are they who speak Latin?; how much milk must I buy? 2-Translate to Friulian: I know not why I speak so; I know why those two women keep quiet like that; they know not how it is possible; I understand where it is that I am to speak in Friulian; John knows not what he is to do; I know how important it is; we know how many Friulians they are who speak Friulian; you know not who I am; they understand me well when I speak in Friulian; of these women we know not how many they are who speak Polish.

ANSWERS. 1-parcè tasistu?; parcè no tasial chel fantat?; ce âstu che tu tasis?; cui sono chei munics che a tasin?; cemût isal pussibil?; cuant isal che o ài di tasê?; dulà isal che o vin di scoltâ chel om?; di chescj fârs francês trops us plasino?; di chês feminis tropis sono irlandesis?; di chescj predis canadês trops sono che a fevelin latin?; trop lat aio di comprâ? 2-no sai parcè che o feveli cussì; o sai parcè che a tasin cussì chês dôs feminis; no san cemût che al è pussibil; o capìs dulà che al è che o ài di fevelâ par furlan; Zuan nol sa ce che al à di fâ; o sai trop che al è impuartant; o savìn trops furlans che a son che a fevelin furlan; vualtris no savês cui che o soi; lôr mi capissin ben cuant che o feveli par furlan; di chestis feminis no savìn tropis che a son che a fevelin polac.

Lesson XX

Viodi is Friulian for to see. The student will note that this infinitive ends in -i, and not in the accented of, for instance, finî and capî. Whereas with finî and capî the stress falls on the final syllable, the stress in viodi falls on the penultimate. Now to its present indicative conjugation: o viôt (I see); tu viodis (thou seest); al viôt (he sees); e viôt (she sees); o viodìn (we see); o viodês (you see); a viodin (they see). When viodi is followed by di, the meaning becomes one of to take care of, to see to. Compare: il vuardean al viôt il fâr (the guardian sees the lighthouse); il vuardean al viôt dal fâr (the guardian takes care of the lighthouse). In the foregoing example, di (of, from) has contracted with the masculine singular il to form dal. Of di, learn the four contractions: dal (di + masculine singular il); dai (di + masculine plural i); de (di + feminine singular la); des (di + feminine plural lis). Study these examples: il muini; dal muini (the sacristan; of the sacristan); i muinis; dai muinis (the sacristans; of the sacristans); la glesie; de glesie (the church; of the church); lis glesiis; des glesiis (the churches; of the churches).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I see those two men; seest thou the stars?; seest thou that thou understandest not?; how does he see the situation?; why do we not see the stars?; see you that we are thirsty?; whom see you with that priest?; what do they see now? 2-Translate to Friulian: that guardian takes care of the border; those guardians take care of the lighthouses; this sacristan takes care of the church; these sacristans take care of the churches; who are those who see to the houses?; that woman takes care of Mark’s father; we must see to this situation; these two shoemakers see to the shoes of the men of this city.

ANSWERS. 1-o viôt chei doi oms; viodistu lis stelis?; viodistu che no tu capissis?; cemût viodial la situazion?; parcè no viodìno lis stelis?; viodêso che o vin sêt?; cui viodêso cun chel predi?; ce viodino cumò? 2-chel vuardean al viôt dal cunfin; chei vuardeans a viodin dai fârs; chest muini al viôt de glesie; chescj muinis a viodin des glesiis; cui sono chei che a viodin des cjasis?; chê femine e viôt dal pari di Marc; o vin di viodi di cheste situazion; chescj doi cjaliârs a viodin des scarpis dai oms di cheste citât.

Lesson XXI

The Friulian meti means to put; its present indicative conjugation is: o met (I put); tu metis (thou puttest); al met (he puts); e met (she puts); o metìn (we put); o metês (you put); a metin (they put). At lesson XX, the student encountered the contractions of di; he will now consider the contractions of in, which is Friulian for in, into: tal (in + masculine singular il); tai (in + masculine plural i); te (in + feminine singular la); tes (in + feminine plural lis). Examples: il gjornâl; tal gjornâl (the newspaper; in the newspaper); i gjornâi; tai gjornâi (the newspapers; in the newspapers); la scjatule; te scjatule (the box; in the box); lis scjatulis; tes scjatulis (the boxes; in the boxes). Of these contractions, variants are: intal, intai, inte, intes, so that the following are also possible: intal gjornâl (in the newspaper); intai gjornâi (in the newspapers); inte scjatule (in the box); intes scjatulis (in the boxes). The preposition in moreover contracts with the indefinite articles to form intun (in + masculine singular un) and intune (in + feminine singular une), for instance: intun gjornâl (in a newspaper); intune scjatule (in a box). A few Friulian locutions employing the solitary in include: in veretât (in truth); in bataie (in battle); in buine fede (in good faith).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the white shoes are in the box; the lads are putting the books into the boxes; thou must put this Italian newspaper into the box; the monk is in the church; the sacristan is speaking in Friulian with the priest in the church; in truth these shoemakers understand well what they are to do; those French lads always speak in good faith; the righteous kill the wicked in battle; the monks keep quiet in the holy places. 2-Translate to Friulian: am I to put the newspapers into the boxes?; is the sacristan to take care of the things which are in the church?; does that baker work in this city?; does that Canadian guardian not work in this lighthouse?; are the Polish priests speaking in the church?; why puttest thou the sword into the hands of that wicked man?; must I put the shoes into a box?

ANSWERS. 1-lis scarpis blancjis a son te scjatule; i fantats a metin i libris tes scjatulis; tu âs di meti chest gjornâl talian te scjatule; il munic al è te glesie; il muini al fevele par furlan cul predi te glesie; in veretât chescj cjaliârs a capissin ben ce che a àn di fâ; chei fantats francês a fevelin simpri in buine fede; i juscj a copin i triscj in bataie; i munics a tasin tai lûcs sants. 2-aio di meti i gjornâi tes scjatulis?; aial il muini di viodi des robis che a son te glesie?; lavorial in cheste citât chel pancôr?; no lavorial in chest fâr chel vuardean canadês?; fevelino te glesie i predis polacs?; parcè metistu la spade tes mans di chel om trist?; aio di meti lis scarpis intune scjatule?

Lesson XXII

The Friulian for with is cun, which contracts with the definite and indefinite articles: cul (cun + masculine singular il); cui (cun + masculine plural i); cu la (cun + feminine singular la); cu lis (cun + feminine plural lis); cuntun (cun + masculine singular un); cuntune (cun + feminine singular une). Examples: cul om (with the man); cu la femine (with the woman); cui fantats (with the lads); cu lis mans (with the hands); cuntun pancôr (with a baker); cuntune sûr (with a sister). The student will note that cu lis mans (with the hands) functions as equivalent to the English with one’s hands; for instance, lavorâ cu lis mans (to work with one’s hands). New vocabulary: The masculine noun popul means people, in the sense of nation; for instance, il popul furlan (the Friulian people, the Friulian nation).

EXERCISES. 1-Provide the contraction of di, in and cun with the definite article for each of the nouns which follow: scjatule; fede; gjornâl; fâr; scjatulis; tieris; gjornâi; libris. 2-Translate to Friulian: I must work with a butcher; thou must speak with a man of faith; they are speaking in Polish with a monk; this is a people with a land and a language; are those lads speaking with a devout mother?; I must listen to the priest with this sacristan; the butcher works with his hands; I work with my hands to put the books and the newspapers into the boxes; thou must kill him with the sword.

ANSWERS. 1-de scjatule, te scjatule, cu la scjatule (of the box, in the box, with the box); de fede, te fede, cu la fede (of the faith, in the faith, with the faith); dal gjornâl, tal gjornâl, cul gjornâl (of the newspaper, in the newspaper, with the newspaper); dal fâr, tal fâr, cul fâr (of the lighthouse, in the lighthouse, with the lighthouse); des scjatulis, tes scjatulis, cu lis scjatulis (of the boxes, in the boxes, with the boxes); des tieris, tes tieris, cu lis tieris (of the lands, in the lands, with the lands); dai gjornâi, tai gjornâi, cui gjornâi (of the newspapers, in the newspapers, with the newspapers); dai libris, tai libris, cui libris (of the books, in the books, with the books). 2-o ài di lavorâ cuntun becjâr; tu âs di fevelâ cuntun om di fede; a fevelin par polac cuntun munic; chest al è un popul cuntune tiere e une lenghe; fevelino chei fantats cuntune mari devote?; o ài di scoltâ il predi cun chest muini; il becjâr al lavore cu lis mans; o lavori cu lis mans par meti i libris e i gjornâi tes scjatulis; tu âs di copâlu cu la spade.

Lesson XXIII

Volê is an irregular verb meaning to want. So does it conjugate in the present indicative: o vuei (I want); tu vuelis (thou wantest); al vûl (he wants); e vûl (she wants); o volìn (we want); o volês (you want); a vuelin (they want). Of tu vuelis, a variant is tu vûs. The Friulian a means at, to, unto; this preposition contracts with definite articles: al (a + masculine singular il); ai (a + masculine plural i); a la (a + feminine singular la); a lis (a + feminine plural lis). Example: lâ al cine (to go to the cinema). The student will note that the feminine forms a la and a lis avoid contraction; however, contracted forms thereof are indeed possible: ae (equivalent to a la) and aes (equivalent to a lis), but ae and aes will not be employed in these lessons. Two Friulian locutions employing the solitary a include: lâ a vore (to go to work); lâ a scuele (to go to school). Both vore (work) and scuele (school) are feminine nouns. At lesson XVI, the student encountered the indirect object pronouns of Friulian; these are needed to make utterances of the sort: il predi i fevele cussì al munic (the priest speaks so to the monk); chei fantats ur fevelin in buine fede ai oms (those lads speak in good faith to the men). In the foregoing examples, it is insufficient to say only al munic and ai oms; these must be accompanied by i (to him) for the former, and by ur (to them) for the latter.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: John speaks to the man; John speaks to the men; John speaks to the woman; John speaks to the women; the baker speaks in Friulian to John; the shoemaker speaks in Friulian to the lads; who is that man who speaks of these things to the women?; who are those men who want to speak of these things to the women?; why speakest thou to the wicked man? 2-Translate to Friulian: wilt thou go now to the cinema?; the lads want not to go to school; the men want to go to work; I have to go to work with the men; those men want not to speak to us.

ANSWERS. 1-Zuan i fevele al om; Zuan ur fevele ai oms; Zuan i fevele a la femine; Zuan ur fevele a lis feminis; il pancôr i fevele par furlan a Zuan; il cjaliâr ur fevele par furlan ai fantats; cui isal chel om che ur fevele di chestis robis a lis feminis?; cui sono chei oms che a vuelin fevelâur di chestis robis a lis feminis?; parcè i fevelistu al om trist? 2-vuelistu lâ cumò al cine?; i fantats no vuelin lâ a scuele; i oms a vuelin lâ a vore; o ài di lâ a vore cui oms; chei oms no vuelin fevelânus.

Lesson XXIV

is Friulian for to give; its conjugation is irregular. Present indicative: o doi (I give); tu dâs (thou givest); al da (he gives); e da (she gives); o din (we give); o dais (you give); a dan (they give). As for domandâ, this is Friulian for to ask; its conjugation is regular and follows that of fevelâ (lesson XII). With and domandâ, we may say the following: dâ il permès (to give permission); domandâ il permès (to ask permission). Consider these examples: mi dan il permès di fevelâ (they give unto me the permission to speak; or put more simply in English, they give me permission to speak); ti domandi il permès di fevelâ (I ask unto thee the permission to speak; or put more simply in English, I ask thee permission to speak). Just as permission is given unto a man, so is it asked unto him, though the omission of unto (or to) be frequent in English; the student may refer to the indirect object pronouns of Friulian provided at lesson XVI.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the man gives the book to me; I give the book to the man; I give the boxes to the lads; the lads give him the sword; the lads give the man the sword; the lads give John the sword; the women give us the boxes; we give the women the boxes; we give thee permission to speak; givest thou me permission to listen?; givest thou her permission to buy?; they give you not permission to take care of the house; the shoemaker wants to speak to the lad and give him these shoes; the priest wants to speak to the men and give them these books; the monk wants to give me these holy things. 2-Translate to Friulian: is he asking the man permission to put the newspaper into the box?; I am not asking them permission to speak; they ask him why he wants to learn Russian; they ask me for information.

ANSWERS. 1-l’om mi da il libri; i doi il libri al om; ur doi lis scjatulis ai fantats; i fantats i dan la spade; i fantats i dan la spade al om; i fantats i dan la spade a Zuan; lis feminis nus dan lis scjatulis; ur din lis scjatulis a lis feminis; ti din il permès di fevelâ; mi dâstu il permès di scoltâ?; i dâstu il permès di comprâ?; no us dan il permès di viodi de cjase; il cjaliâr al vûl fevelâi al fantat i dâi chestis scarpis; il predi al vûl fevelâur ai oms i dâur chescj libris; il munic al vûl dâmi chestis robis santis. 2-i domandial il permès al om di meti il gjornâl te scjatule?; no ur domandi il permès di fevelâ; i domandin parcè che al vûl imparâ il rus; mi domandin une informazion.

Lesson XXV

The imperative is employed to give commands; it takes an affirmative form (do this, do that) and a negated form (do this not, do that not). The student will first consider the negated form. To give a negated command in Friulian, the student will position one of the following before an infinitive: no sta (second-person singular); no stait a (second-person plural); no stin a (first-person plural). Examples: no sta fevelâ (speak {thou} not); no stait a fevelâ (speak {you} not); no stin a fevelâ (let us not speak). The second-person singular form is employed when speaking to one person on a familar level, whereas the second-person plural form is employed when speaking to more than one person on a familiar level. Dut is Friulian for all; it takes four forms: dut (masculine singular); ducj (masculine plural); dute (feminine singular); dutis (feminine plural). Examples: ducj i oms (all the men); dutis lis feminis (all the women).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian, second-person singular: listen not; kill not; put not; do not buy; do not ask; do not give; do not put all the books into the boxes; do not tell the man what I have to do; tell not the men who I am; do not give all these things to the lads. 2-Translate to Friulian, second-person plural: give not the lads permission to speak; ask them not permission to do these things; do not listen to the wicked men. 3-Translate to Friulian, first-person plural: let us not speak to the women; let us not give them any book; let us not do these things which we are to do. 4-Employ the correct form of dut before each of the following: la vore; i munics; il lat; lis spadis.

ANSWERS. 1-no sta scoltâ; no sta copâ; no sta meti; no sta comprâ; no sta domandâ; no sta dâ; no sta meti ducj i libris tes scjatulis; no sta dîi al om ce che o ài di fâ; no sta dîur ai oms cui che o soi; no sta dâur ai fantats dutis chestis robis. 2-no stait a daûr ai fantats il permès di fevelâ; no stait a domandâur il permès di fâ chestis robis; no stait a scoltâ i oms triscj. 3-no stin a fevelâur a lis feminis; no stin a dâur nissun libri; no stin a fâ chestis robis che o vin di fâ. 4-dute la vore (all the work); ducj i munics (all the monks); dut il lat (all the milk); dutis lis spadis (all the swords).

Lesson XXVI

The student will now begin to examine the Friulian imperative in its affirmative form, taking fevelâ as a model for regular verbs whose infinitive ends in -â. Consider: fevele (speak {thou}; second-person singular); fevelait (speak {you}; second-person plural); fevelìn (let us speak; first-person plural). The verb endings to be retained, as can be ascertained from the foregoing examples, are -e, -ait and -ìn. Another example: cope (kill {thou}); copait (kill {you}); copìn (let us kill). Consider now the following, where the second-person singular -e becomes -i- before the suffixed pronoun: copilu (kill him); copile (kill her); copiju (kill them; males or mixed gender are to be killed); copilis (kill them; females are to be killed). These are the direct object pronouns of Friulian: mi (me); ti (thee); lu (him, it); le (her, it); nus (us); us (you); ju (them; masculine); lis (them; feminine); it was at lesson XVI that the indirect object pronouns were presented.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate the following commands to Friulian, second-person singular: work; remain; listen; ask; buy; kill; study. 2-Translate the same, second-person plural. 3-Translate the same, first-person plural. 4-Negate the same, all three persons. 5-Translate to Friulian, second-person singular: buy it; buy them; buy them not; speak to him; speak to them; speak not to them; speak to us; ask me. 6-Translate to Friulian, second-person plural: listen to her; ask her; kill her; speak to us. 7-Translate to Friulian, first-person plural: let us buy it; let us kill them; let us speak to her; let us ask them.

ANSWERS. 1-lavore; reste; scolte; domande; compre; cope; studie. 2-lavorait; restait; scoltait; domandait; comprait; copait; studiait. 3-lavorìn; restìn; scoltìn; domandìn; comprìn; copìn; studiìn. 4-no sta lavorâ, no stait a lavorâ, no stin a lavorâ; no sta restâ, no stait a restâ, no stin a restâ; no sta scoltâ, no stait a scoltâ, no stin a scoltâ; no sta domandâ, no stait a domandâ, no stin a domandâ; no sta comprâ, no stait a comprâ, no stin a comprâ; no sta copâ, no stait a copâ, no stin a copâ; no sta studiâ, no stait a studiâ, no stin a studiâ. 5-comprilu; compriju; no sta comprâju; fevelii; feveliur; no sta fevelâur; fevelinus; domandimi. 6-scoltaitle; domandaitji; copaitle; fevelaitnus. Here the student must note that scoltaitle translates after the Friulian manner as listen her, and domandaitji as ask unto her. He will also note the insertion of -j- between the second-person plural -ait- and the vowel -i; more examples: fevelaitji (speak to him); fevelaitjur (speak to them); domandaitji (ask her); domandaitjur (ask them). 7-comprìnlu; copìnju; fevelìnji; domandìnjur.

Lesson XXVII

Of tasê, learn the affirmative imperative: tâs (keep {thou} quiet); tasêt (keep {you} quiet); tasìn (let us keep quiet). Of finî, learn the same: finìs (finish {thou}); finît (finish {you}); finìn (let us finish). Of viodi, learn the same: viôt (see {thou}); viodêt (see {you}); viodìn (let us see). The student will use these as models to complete the exercises. New vocabulary: cjapâ (to take); crodi (to believe).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate the following commands to Friulian, second-person singular: kill; take; keep quiet; understand; finish; see; believe. 2-Translate the same, second-person plural. 3-Translate the same, first-person plural. 4-Translate to Friulian: kill (you) it; take (you) it; kill (thou) it; take (thou) it; understand (thou) me; finish (thou) them; believe (thou) me; let us finish them. 5-Translate to Friulian: see (thou) to finishing the work; see (you) to finishing the work; speak (you) not to us in Italian because we understand it not; buy (thou) me a book; put (thou) the book into the box; put (you) these books into the boxes; let us put these shoes into the white boxes.

ANSWERS. 1-cope; cjape; tâs; capìs; finìs; viôt; crôt. 2-copait; cjapait; tasêt; capît; finît; viodêt; crodêt. 3-copìn; cjapìn; tasìn; capìn; finìn; viodìn; crodìn. 4-copaitlu; cjapaitlu; copilu; cjapilu; capissimi; finissiju; crodimi; finìnju. 5-viôt di finî la vore; viodêt di finî la vore; no stait a fevelânus par talian parcè che no lu capìn; comprimi un libri; met il libri te scjatule; metêt chescj libris tes scjatulis; metìn chestis scarpis tes scjatulis blancjis.


The Friulian for the lad gives the book to me is il fantat mi da il libri, whereas the Friulian for the lad gives it to me is il fantat mal da. Mal is the contraction of the indirect object pronoun mi (to me) and the direct object pronoun lu (it), where lu stands in for the masculine singular il libri (the book). Consider: il fantat al da il libri (the lad gives the book); il fantat lu da (the lad gives it); il fantat mal da (the lad gives it to me). The direct object pronouns lu (him, it; masculine singular), ju (them; masculine plural), le (her, it; feminine singular) and lis (them; feminine plural) contract with mi to form mal, mai, me, mes, respectively. Another example: il fantat al da la scjatule (the lad gives the box); il fantat le da (the lad gives it); il fantat me da (the lad gives it to me). In a similar way, the indirect object pronoun ti (to thee) contracts with the four direct object pronouns to form tal, tai, te, tes. New vocabulary: la bandiere (flag); neri (black).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the priest gives the permission-the priest gives it to me; the lad gives the newspapers-the lad gives them to me; the guardian gives the Friulian flag-the guardian gives it to me; the shoemaker gives the shoes-the shoemaker gives them to me. 2-Translate to Friulian: this permission, the priest gives it not to thee; these newspapers, the lad gives them not to thee; this Friulian flag, the guardian gives it not to thee; these shoes, the shoemaker gives them not to thee. 3-Translate to Friulian: these Friulian flags, the lad wants to give them to me; these black shoes, the shoemaker wants to give them to thee; this Italian newspaper, the man wants not to give it to me; these books, the lads want not to give them to thee.

ANSWERS. 1-il predi al da il permès-il predi mal da; il fantat al da i gjornâi-il fantat mai da; il vuardean al da la bandiere furlane-il vuardean me da; il cjaliâr al da lis scarpis-il cjaliâr mes da. 2-chest permès, il predi no tal da; chescj gjornâi, il fantat no tai da; cheste bandiere furlane, il vuardean no te da; chestis scarpis, il cjaliâr no tes da. 3-chestis bandieris furlanis, il fantat al vûl dâmes; chestis scarpis neris, il cjaliâr al vûl dâtes; chest gjornâl talian, l’om nol vûl dâmal; chescj libris, i fantats no vuelin dâtai.

Lesson XXIX

The Friulian for the woman gives the book to him is la femine i da il libri, whereas the Friulian for the woman gives it to him is la femine jal da. Jal is the contraction of the indirect object pronoun i (to him, to her, to it) and the direct object pronoun lu (it), where lu stands in for the masculine singular il libri (the book). Consider: la femine e da (the woman gives); la femine i da (the woman gives to him); la femine i da il libri (the women gives the book to him); la femine lu da (the woman gives it); la femine jal da (the woman gives it to him). The direct object pronouns lu (him, it; masculine singular), ju (them; masculine plural), le (her, it; feminine singular) and lis (them; feminine plural) contract with i to form jal, jai, je, jes, respectively. Another example: lis feminis a dan (the women give); lis feminis i dan (the women give to her); lis feminis i dan lis scjatulis (the women give the boxes to her); lis feminis lis dan (the women give them); lis feminis jes dan (the women give them to her). Of dâ, learn the imperative: da (give {thou}; second-person singular); dait (give {you}; second-person plural); din (let us give; first person plural).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the permission, the priest gives it to him; the newspapers, the lad gives them to her; the Friulian flag, the guardian gives it to him; the white shoes, the shoemaker gives them to her; the sword, the man gives it not to the lad; the books, we give them not to John; the black shoes, I give them to the sacristan; the newspaper, I give it not to the woman. 2-Translate to Friulian: the book, I want not to give it to her; the box, they want not to give it to him; the books, give (you) them to her; the boxes, give (thou) them to him; the books, give (you) them not to Mary; the boxes, give (thou) them not to John.

ANSWERS. 1-il permès, il predi jal da; i gjornâi, il fantat jai da; la bandiere furlane, il vuardean je da; lis scarpis blancjis, il cjaliâr jes da; la spade, l’om no je da al fantat; lis libris, no jai din a Zuan; lis scarpis neris, jes doi al muini; il gjornâl, no jal doi a la femine. 2-il libri, no vuei dâjal; la scjatule, no vuelin dâje; i libris, daitjai; lis scjatulis, dajes; i libris, no stait a dâjai a Marie; lis scjatulis, no sta dâjes a Zuan.

Lesson XXX

Just as the indirect object pronouns mi, ti and i contract with the direct object pronouns lu, ju, le and lis (see lessons XXVIII and XXIX), so too do the indirect object pronouns nus (to us), us (to you) and ur (to them) contract with the same, to produce: (with lu) nus al, us al, ur al; (with ju) nus ai, us ai, ur ai; (with le) nus e, us e, ur e; (with lis) nus es, us es, ur es. Examples: i libris, us ai doi (the books, I give them to you); lis scarpis, nus es dan (the shoes, they give them to us). New vocabulary: menâ (to lead); regarding the formation of its affirmative imperative, the student may wish to review lesson XXVI.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the permission, the priest gives it to us; the newspapers, the lad gives them to you; the Friulian flag, the guardian gives it to them; the white shoes, the shoemaker gives them to us; the sword, the man gives it not to you; the books, we give them not to them; the black shoes, I give them to the sacristans; the newspaper, I give it not to the women. 2-Translate to Friulian: the book, I want to give it to the lads; the lads, lead (thou) them to me; the women, lead (you) them to us; the lad, lead (you) him to them; the lad, let us lead him to them.

ANSWERS. 1-il permès, il predi nus al da; i gjornâi, il fantat us ai da; la bandiere furlane, il vuardean ur e da; lis scarpis blancjis, il cjaliâr nus es da; la spade, l’om no us e da; i libris, no ur ai din; lis scarpis neris, ur es doi ai muinis; il gjornâl, no ur al doi a lis feminis. 2-il libri, o vuei dâural ai fantats; i fantats, menimai; lis feminis, menaitnuses; il fantat, menaitjural; il fantat, menìnjural.

Further lessons to come. Last update: 10 VIII 2022.