Friulian language lessons, book II

In this second book, sentences drawn primarily from the Holy Bible are annotated with grammar and vocabulary notes, that the student may further his understanding of the Friulian language. To learn the basics of this language, the student ought to return to the first book.

Contents

Sentence I

Tal imprin Diu al creà cîl e tiere. (Gjenesi 1,1) Imprin is a masculine noun meaning beginning. As for the beginning, the Friulian is l’imprin; for in the beginning, it is tal imprin. Tal is the contraction of the preposition in, meaning in, and il or l’, which are the masculine singular definite articles meaning the. Other examples of the sort: il poç, tal poç (the well, in the well); il mâr, tal mâr (the sea, in the sea); il spirt, tal spirt (the spirit, in the spirit); l’arbûl, tal arbûl (the tree, in the tree); l’an, tal an (the year, in the year). The Friulian for to create is creâ; so does it conjugate in the simple past: o creai (I created; first-person singular); tu crearis (thou createdest; second-person singular); al creà (he created; masculine, third-person singular); e creà (she created; feminine, third-person singular); o crearin (we created; first-person plural); o crearis (you created; second-person plural); a crearin (they created; third-person plural). The student will note that the atonic al, masculine singular, is not omitted after the subject in an affirmative statement: Diu al creà (God created); il Signôr al creà (the Lord created); il Signôr Diu al creà (the Lord God created). Cîl is a masculine noun meaning heaven, whereas tiere is a feminine noun meaning earth; cîl e tiere, then, is read heaven and earth. In other contexts, cîl may be employed in the sense of sky, whereas tiere may be employed in the sense of land, ground, soil; for example, il cîl al è nulât means the sky is cloudy, and la tiere dai nestris nemîs means the land of our enemies.

Sentence II

Il Signôr al è il gno pastôr: no mi mancjarà nuie. (Salm 23[22],1) The masculine noun Signôr is the Friulian for Lord; also masculine is the noun pastôr, meaning shepherd. Friulian expresses is in two ways: al è and e je. Al è is employed with a masculine singular subject: il Signôr al è (the Lord is); il pastôr al è (the shepherd is); l’om al è (the man is). E je is employed with a feminine singular subject: la stele e je (the star is); la cjase e je (the house is); la femine e je (the woman is). Gno is the Friulian for my, used with a masculine singular noun; with a feminine singular noun, it is rather that is used: il gno pastôr (my shepherd); il gno libri (my book); il gno predi (my priest); la mê citât (my city); la mê tiere (my land); la mê glesie (my church). No… nuie is the Friulian for nothing. A number of examples: al vûl, nol vûl nuie (he wants, he wants nothing); al viôt, nol viôt nuie (he sees, he sees nothing); e fâs, no fâs nuie (she does, she does nothing); e à viodût, no à viodût nuie (she has seen, she has seen nothing). Mancjâ (to be wanting, to lack) takes the form al mancjarà (it will be wanting, it will lack) in the masculine singular of the simple future; negated, this becomes nol mancjarà (it will not be wanting, it will not lack). Nol is the contraction of al and no. When nuie is employed, obtained is: nol mancjarà nuie (nothing will be wanting, nothing will lack), and when mi (unto me) is added thereto, obtained is: no mi mancjarà nuie (nothing will be wanting unto me, nothing will lack unto me). With the inclusion of mi, the contracted al of nol must be omitted, wherefore no in this instance. Another example: al darà, nol darà, no mi darà, no mi darà nuie (he will give, he will not give, he will not give to me, he will give nothing to me). Yet another example: al disarà, nol disarà, no mi disarà, no mi disarà nuie (he will say, he will not say, he will not say to me, he will say nothing to me).

Sentence III

Chel che si inrabie cun so fradi al varà di passâ sot judizi. (Matieu 5,22) The Friulian chel che is equivalent to the he who of English; for instance, chel che al à (he who has); chel che al viôt (he who sees); chel che al fâs (he who does). In speech, che al of the foregoing examples contracts to one syllable: ch’al (sounds like kal), so that, for instance, chel che al à is pronounced in three syllables rather than four: chel/ ch’al/ à. Chel, masculine singular, is the Friulian for that, that one; in this way, chel che may also be read that one who. Inrabiâsi (to become wroth, to get angry) is a reflexive verb, evident from its si ending (inrabiâ + si); its present indicative conjugation follows: mi inrabii (I become wroth; first-person singular); tu ti inrabiis (thou becomest wroth; second-person singular); si inrabie (he/she/it becomes wroth; third-person singular); si inrabiìn (we become wroth; first-person plural); si inrabiais (you become wroth; second-person plural); si inrabiin (they become wroth; third-person plural). Chel che si inrabie, then, is the Friulian for he who becomes wroth, whosoever becomes angry, that one who gets angry, and so on. Cun is the Friulian for with. Fradi, a masculine noun, is the Friulian for brother; with the names of family members in the singular, the definite article is omitted before the possessive adjective: il so re (his/her king), but so fradi (his/her brother); il gno libri (my book), but gno pari (my father); la mê vore (my work), but mê mari (my mother). For a fuller treatment of Friulian possessive adjectives, the student ought to consult book I, lesson XXXIV. is the Friulian for to have, whereas vê di is the Friulian for to have to, must. In the simple future, so does conjugate: o varai (I shall have; first-person singular); tu varâs (thou wilt have; second-person singular); al varà (he will have; masculine, third-person singular); e varà (she will have, feminine, third-person singular); o varìn (we shall have; first-person plural); o varês (you will have; second-person plural); a varan (they will have; third-person plural). Al varà di translates quite literally from the Friulian as he will have to; in our sentence under review, this is employed in the sense of he shall. Passâ is the Friulian for to pass; sot is the Friulian for under; judizi, masculine noun, is the Friulian for judgement: passâ sot judizi, literally, to pass under judgement, which is to say, to come under judgement, to be judged.

Sentence IV

Tu nus âs salvade la vite. (Gjenesi 47,25) Salvâ is the Friulian for to save; so does it conjugate in the recent past: o ài salvât (I have saved; first-person singular); tu âs salvât (thou hast saved; second-person singular); al à salvât (he has saved; masculine, third-person singular); e à salvât (she has saved; feminine, third-person singular); o vin salvât (we have saved; first-person plural); o vês salvât (you have saved; second-person plural); a àn salvât (they have saved; third-person plural). Salvât (saved) is the past participle of the salvâ (to save). A past participle takes four forms; in the case of salvât, these are: salvât (masculine singular); salvâts (masculine plural); salvade (feminine singular); salvadis (feminine plural). In our sentence under review, the past participle salvât takes the form salvade to agree in gender (feminine) and number (singular) with the feminine singular direct object la vite (the life). Nus (unto us) is an indirect object pronoun. The literal translation from the Friulian of tu nus âs salvade la vite is thou hast saved the life unto us, which is to say, thou hast saved our life. Other examples: tu mi âs salvade la vite (thou hast saved my life [thou hast saved the life unto me]); tu i âs salvade la vite (thou hast saved his/her life [thou hast saved the life unto him/her]).

Sentence V

Fermaitsi culì, intant che jo o voi li a preâ. (Matieu 26,36) The transitive fermâ means to halt {something}, whereas the reflexive fermâsi means to halt oneself; for instance, fermâ la vore means to halt the work, whereas il tren si ferme means the train halts itself, which is to say, the train comes to a halt. In these words of Jesus, we find the second-person singular imperative fermaitsi, meaning halt yourselves. Of fermâsi, the imperative is: fermiti (halt thyself); fermaitsi (halt yourselves); fermìnsi (let us halt ourselves). The fuller command given by Jesus is fermaitsi culì, meaning halt yourselves here; other possible readings, to name but a few, include: come you to a halt here; wait you here; stay you here. The Friulian for here will be encountered by the student under a number of different forms: ca, chenti, chi, culì. As for intant che, this is the Friulian for whilst. Jo o voi means I go, from (to go); the present indicative conjugation of is: o voi (I go; first-person singular); tu vâs (thou goest; second-person singular); al va (he goes; masculine, third-person singular); e va (she goes; feminine, third-person singular); o lin (we go; first-person plural); o lais (you go; second-person plural); a van (they go; third-person plural). Li is the Friulian not only for there, but also thither; similarly, culì is the Friulian not only for here, but also hither. Given that in this context there is movement involved, li is here read thither. Preâ is the Friulian for to pray. In this way, intant che jo o voi li a preâ is read whilst I go thither to pray.

Sentence VI

Ma Jesù no i rispuindè nancje une peraule. (Matieu 15,23) Ma is the Friulian for but. As for rispuindi, this is the Friulian for to respond; so does it conjugate in the simple past: o rispuindei (I responded; first-person singular); tu rispuinderis (thou respondedest; second-person singular); al rispuindè (he responded; masculine, third-person singular); e rispuindè (she responded; feminine, third-person singular); o rispuinderin (we responded; first-person plural); o rispuinderis (you responded; second-person plural); a rispuinderin (they responded; third-person plural). Consider the following: Jesù al rispuindè (Jesus responded); Jesù i rispuindè (Jesus responded unto her); Jesù nol rispuindè (Jesus responded not); Jesù no i rispuindè (Jesus responded not unto her). The singular indirect object pronoun i means either unto him, unto her or unto it, according to the context wherein it is used; its plural equivalent, for information, is ur (unto them), used for either of the genders: Jesù ur rispuindè (Jesus responded unto them). Peraule is a feminine noun meaning word; une peraule, then, means a word, one word. As for nancje, this is read not even, for instance: nol à nancje un dint (he has not even one tooth); no à nancje vincj agns (she is not even twenty years old [she has not even twenty years]); no âstu nancje capît? (hast thou not even understood?); no àn nancje mai provât (they have not even ever tried); no tu âs di zontâ nancje une peraule (thou needest not add even one word).

Sentence VII

Isal ancjemò vîf gno pari? (Gjenesi 45,3) The Friulian for my father is gno pari; the student ought to also learn the following: to pari (thy father); so pari (his/her father); nestri pari (our father); vuestri pari (your father); lôr pari (their father). Care must be taken to understand the difference between to pari and vuestri pari; whereas the second-person singular to pari is employed when speaking with one person on a familar level, the second-person plural vuestri pari is employed when speaking with more than one. Ancjemò is the Friulian for yet, still. As for vîf, this is the Friulian for alive, living; it takes four forms: vîf (masculine singular); vîfs (masculine plural); vive (feminine singular); vivis (feminine plural). Isal is the interrogative form of al è, so that, for instance, the declarative al è vîf means he is alive, whereas the interrogative isal vîf? means is he alive?; following are both the declarative and interrogative forms of jessi (to be) for all persons in the present indicative: o soi; soio? (I am; am I?); tu sês; sêstu? (thou art; art thou?); al è; isal? (he is; is he?); e je; ise? (she is; is she?); o sin; sino? (we are; are we?); o sês; sêso? (you are; are you?); a son; sono? (they are; are they?). To expand on the earlier point regarding the difference between to pari and vuestri pari, were the student to ask one friend if his father were yet alive, he would say: isal ancjemò vîf to pari? (is thy father still alive?). Were he to ask the same question of two friends who also happen to be siblings, so would his question be put: isal ancjemò vîf vuestri pari? (is your father still alive?). If his two friends were not siblings, the question would be put thus: sono ancjemò vîfs vuestris paris? (are your fathers still alive?). Were he instead to ask regarding the mother, so would his three questions be put: ise ancjemò vive tô mari? (is thy mother still alive?); ise ancjemò vive vuestre mari? (is your mother still alive?); sono ancjemò vivis vuestris maris? (are your mothers still alive?).

Sentence VIII

Tal dîs in veretât: vuê tu sarâs cun me in paradîs. (Luche 23,43) The Friulian for truth is the feminine noun veretât; in these words of Jesus, we encounter in veretât, meaning in truth, but also truly, verily. is the Friulian for to say, to tell; so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o dîs (I say; first-person singular); tu disis (thou sayest; second-person singular); al dîs (he says; masculine, third-person singular); e dîs (she says; feminine, third-person singular); o disìn (we say; first-person plural); o disês (you say; second-person plural); a disin (they say; third-person plural). The student will note the difference in pronunciation between the first-person plural disìn and the third-person plural disin: in the former, the tonic stress is on the final syllable (indicated by the accent), whereas in the latter it is on the first syllable. Consider now the following: o dîs (I say); ti dîs (I say to thee); tal dîs (I say it to thee). Tal is the contraction of ti (to thee) and the masculine singular direct object pronoun lu (it). In the presence of ti (and any forms contracted therewith, such as tal), the atonic o of o dîs is omitted. Tal dîs in veretât, then, is read I say it to thee in truth, I tell it thee in truth, which is a Friulian manner of expressing truly I tell thee. Vuê is the Friulian for today. Cun me is the Friulian for with me. As for paradîs, this is a masculine noun meaning paradise; in paradîs, then, means in paradise. Of jessi (to be), following is the simple future: o sarai (I shall be; first-person singular); tu sarâs (thou wilt be; second-person singular); al sarà (he will be; masculine, third-person singular); e sarà (she will be; feminine, third-person singular); o sarìn (we shall be; first-person plural); o sarês (you will be; second-person plural); a saran (they will be; third-person plural). Tu sarâs (thou wilt be) may also be read thou shalt be, and it moreover ought to be in this context, given that the Friulian simple future can be used for promises.

Sentence IX

No vês ni di mangjânt ni di tocjânt, se no o murirês. (Gjenesi 3,3) By these words, God instructs that Adam and Eve are neither to eat nor touch of the tree in the middle of the garden. Whereas the Friulian means to have, vê di (+ infinitive) means must, to have to; for instance, o ài un libri means I have a book, but o ài di lavorâ means I must work, I have to work. Of vê di, following is the present indicative conjugation: o ài di (I must; first-person singular); tu âs di (thou must; second-person singular); al à di (he must; masculine, third-person singular); e à di (she must; feminine, third-person singular); o vin di (we must; first-person plural); o vês di (you must; second-person plural); a àn di (they must; third-person plural). Negated, the above become: no ài di; no tu âs di; nol à di; no à di; no vin di; no vês di; no àn di. In this way, the second-person singular tu âs di mangjâ means thou must eat, whereas no tu âs di mangjâ means thou must not eat; and the second-person plural o vês di mangjâ means you must eat, whereas no vês di mangjâ means you must not eat. In the words of God, found however are not mangjâ and tocjâ, but mangjânt and tocjânt; the nt suffix is read thereof, therefrom, of it, from it, and it refers back to the tree in the middle of the garden: no vês di mangjânt (you must not eat thereof, you must not eat of it); no vês di tocjânt (you must not touch thereof, you must not touch of it). Neither… nor is expressed in Friulian by way of no… ni… ni…, so that no vês ni di mangjânt ni di tocjânt is read you must neither eat thereof nor touch thereof. Se no is the Friulian for otherwise. As for murî, this is the Friulian for to die; so does it conjugate in the simple future: o murirai (I shall die; first-person singular); tu murirâs (thou wilt die; second-person singular); al murirà (he will die; masculine, third-person singular); e murirà (she will die; feminine, third-person singular); o murirìn (we shall die; first-person plural); o murirês (you will die; second-person plural); a muriran (they will die; third-person plural). O murirês (you will die) may also be read you shall die, and it moreover ought to be in this context, given that the Friulian simple future can be used for threats.

Sentence X

Nol pò un arbul bon fâ pomis tristis e nancje un arbul trist fâ pomis buinis. (Matieu 7,18) Two adjectives here appear: bon (good) and trist (evil, wicked). The four forms of bon are: bon (masculine singular); bogns (masculine plural); buine (feminine singular); buinis (feminine plural). Of trist, the four forms are: trist (masculine singular); triscj (masculine plural); triste (feminine singular); tristis (feminine plural). Also encountered are two nouns: the masculine arbul (tree) and the feminine pome (fruit); the plural of the former is arbui (trees), and the plural of the latter is pomis (fruits). In this way, un arbul bon means a good tree, whereas un arbul trist means an evil tree; and fâ pomis tristis means to make evil fruits, whereas fâ pomis buinis means to make good fruits. As for the verb podê (can, to be able), so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o pues (I can; first-person singular); tu puedis (thou canst; second-person singular); al pues (he can; masculine, third-person singular); e pues (she can; feminine, third-person singular); o podìn (we can; first-person plural); o podês (you can; second-person plural); a puedin (they can; third-person plural). Negated, these are: no pues; no tu puedis; nol pues (or nol pò); no pues (or no pò); no podìn; no podês; no puedin. Study the following: un arbul al pues (a tree can); un arbul nol pues or un arbul nol pò (a tree cannot); une pome e pues (a fruit can); une pome no pues or une pome no pò (a fruit cannot). In the foregoing examples, the masculine singular subject arbul calls for the masculine singular forms of verb: al pues (affirmative) and nol pues or nol pò (negative); the feminine singular subject pome calls for the feminine singular forms of verb: e pues (affirmative) and no pues or no pò (negative). E nancje is the Friulian for neither. Following is a translation of the sentence: nol pò un arbul bon (a good tree cannot) fâ pomis tristis (make evil fruits) e nancje un arbul trist (neither an evil tree) fâ pomis buinis (make good fruits).

Sentence XI

Alore ur al disarai clâr: No us ài mai cognossûts. (Matieu 7,23) Alore is the Friulian for then. As for clâr, this is here read clearly, plainly. (to say) conjugates so in the simple future: o disarai (I shall say; first-person singular); tu disarâs (thou wilt say; second-person singular); al disarà (he will say; masculine, third-person singular); e disarà (she will say; feminine, third-person singular); o disarìn (we shall say; first-person plural); o disarês (you will say; second-person plural); a disaran (they will say; third-person plural). In alore ur al disarai clâr (I shall say it to them plainly), found is ur al, which is the contraction of ur (unto them) and lu (it). So do all the indirect object pronouns contract with lu: (i) mal (= mi [unto me] + lu); (ii) tal (= ti [unto thee] + lu); (iii) jal (= i [unto him, her, it] + lu); (iv) sal (= si [unto oneself] + lu); (v) nus al (= nus [unto us] + lu); (vi) us al (= us [unto you] + lu); (vii) ur al (= ur [unto them] + lu). Examples: tal disarai (I shall say it to thee); jal ài dit (I have said it to him); ur al disês (you say it to them); mal disaran (they will say it to me); no tu nus al disevis (thou wast not saying it to us). To speak of knowing a person, Friulian employs cognossi (to know, to be acquianted with). Although the present indicative of cognossi appears not in this sentence, here is how its conjugates in this tense, for reference of the student: o cognòs (I know; first-person singular); tu cognossis (thou knowest; second-person singular); al cognòs (he knows; masculine, third-person singular); e cognòs (she knows; feminine, third-person singular); o cognossìn (we know; first-person plural); o cognossês (you know; second-person plural); a cognossin (they know; third-person plural). Examples: mi cognossin benon (they know me very well); a son cinc agns che si cognossìn (it is five years that we know one another). Found in this sentence is the recent past of cognossi, which conjugates so: o ài cognossût (I have known; first-person singular); tu âs cognossût (thou hast known; second-person singular); al à cognossût (he has known; masculine, third-person singular); e à cognossût (she has known; feminine, third-person singular); o vin cognossût (we have known; first-person plural); o vês cognossût (you have known; second-person plural); a àn cognossût (they have known; third-person plural). Past participles can take four forms; of the past participle cognossût, these four forms are: cognossût (masculine singular); cognossûts (masculine plural); cognossude (feminine singular); cognossudis (feminine plural). In no us ài mai cognossûts (I have never known you), the past participle takes the masculine plural form cognossûts to agree in gender and number with the masculine plural direct object us (you). Study the following: o ài cognossût (I have known); no ài cognossût (I have not known); no ài mai cognossût (I have never known); no us ài mai cognossûts (I have never known you).

Sentence XII

Ma ind è cualchidun fra di vualtris che nol crôt. (Zuan 6,64) The Friulian ind è means there is, there are. Ind derives from indi (thereof), where the final i is dropped before the vowel of the verb è. Its negated form as used in the Friulian version of the Holy Bible is no ’nd è (there is not, there are not), where even the first i of indi is dropped, for it is immediately preceded by the final vowel of no. Ind è is pronounced indè, whereas no ’nd è is pronounced nondè. Examples: ind è un slac di resons (there are many reasons); no ’nd è nissun come lui (there is none like him); no ’nd è plui pan in citât (there is no more bread in the city); no ’nd è testemonis cuintri di jê (there are no witnesses against her). Cualchidun can take either a singular reading (someone, anyone) or a plural reading (some); in the context of this sentence, it takes the plural reading some. Examples: cualchidun al è stât copât (someone has been killed); isal cualchidun in cjase? (is anyone home?); cualchidun al è tornât e cualchidun altri no (some returned and some others did not). Fra di vualtris means amongst you. Crodi is the Friulian for to believe; so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o crôt (I believe; first-person singular); tu crodis (thou believest; second-person singular); al crôt (he believes; masculine, third-person singular); e crôt (she believes; feminine, third-person singular); o crodìn (we believe; first-person plural); o crodês (you believe; second-person plural); a crodin (they believe; third-person plural). Negated, these are: no crôt; no tu crodis; nol crôt; no crôt; no crodìn; no crodês; no crodin. Cualchidun is taken as a masculine, third-person singular subject, wherefore nol crôt. Following is a translation of the sentence: Ma ind è cualchidun (but there are some) fra di vualtris (amongst you) che nol crôt (who believe not).

Sentence XIII

Alore Jesù ur disè ai Dodis: «Volêso lâsint ancje vualtris?». (Zuan 6,67) Dodis is the Friulian for twelve; i Dodis (the Twelve) refers to the twelve apostles of Jesus. As for ai Dodis, this is the Friulian for to the Twelve, where ai is the contraction of a (to) and i (the, masculine plural). Following is how (to say) conjugates in the simple past: o disei (I said; first-person singular); tu diseris (thou saidest; second-person singular); al disè (he said; masculine, third-person singular); e disè (she said; feminine, third-person singular); o diserin (we said; first-person plural); o diseris (you said; second-person plural); a diserin (they said; third-person plural). Study the following: alore Jesù al disè (then Jesus said); alore Jesù ur disè (then Jesus said to them); alore Jesù ur disè ai Dodis (then Jesus said to the Twelve). Lâsint is the Friulian for to go away; in the words of Jesus, it is found in infinitive form, but here is how it conjugates in the present indicative, for reference: mi ’nt voi (I go away; first-person singular); tu ti ’nt vâs (thou goest away; second-person singular); si ’nt va (he/she/it goes away; third-person singular); si ’nt lin (we go away; first-person plural); si ’nt lais (you go away; second-person plural); si ’nt van (they go away; third-person plural). The contracted ’nt, which derives from indi, sounds like the ng of English, so that, for instance, mi ’nt voi sounds like ming voy. Volê is the Friulian for to want, to will; so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o vuei (I want, I will; first-person singular); tu vuelis (thou wantest, thou wilt; second-person singular); al vûl (he wants, he will; third-person singular); e vûl (she wants, she will; third-person singular); o volìn (we want, we will; first-person plural); o volês (you want, you will; second-person plural); a vuelin (they want, they will; third-person plural). In the interrogative, these are: vuelio?; vuelistu?; vuelial?; vuelie?; volìno?; volêso?; vuelino? A variant exists in the second-person singular: tu vûs; vûstu? As for ancje vualtris, this is the Friulian for also you, you too: ancje (also, too); vualtris (you, second-person plural). Jesus asks the Twelve: Volêso lâsint ancje vualtris? (will you go away, also you?).

Sentence XIV

Chest lu diseve par fâur capî di ce muart che al stave par murî. (Zuan 12,33) Chest is the Friulian for this; it takes four different forms: chest (masculine singular); chescj (masculine plural); cheste (feminine singular); chestis (feminine plural). Chest is here employed in the masculine singular to refer to that which Jesus has said. In the imperfect, so does (to say) conjugate: o disevi (I was saying; first-person singular); tu disevis (thou wast saying; second-person singular); al diseve (he was saying; masculine, third-person singular); e diseve (she was saying; feminine, third-person singular); o disevin (we were saying; first-person plural); o disevis (you were saying; second-person plural); a disevin (they were saying; third-person plural). Study the following: al diseve (he was saying); lu diseve (he was saying it); chest lu diseve (he was saying this [this, he was saying it]). Chest lu diseve is a typically Friulian manner of expression, where the direct object is placed at the head of the utterance and then reprised by way of its pronoun; another example: la domande no le capivi (I was not understanding the question [the question, I was not understanding it]). Ur is the Friulian for unto them; whereas par fâ capî means to make understand, par fâur capî means to make understand unto them, which is to say, to make them understand. The Friulian for death is the feminine noun muart; in our sentence, di ce muart is read by what death, of what death or from what death, which is to say, by (of, from) what {manner of} death. Murî is the Friulian for to die; as for stâ par murî, this means to be about to die. In the imperfect, stâ par (to be about to) conjugates so: o stavi par (I was about to; first-person singular); tu stavis par (thou wast about to; second-person singular); al stave par (he was about to; masculine, third-person singular); e stave par (she was about to; feminine, third-person singular); o stavin par (we were about to; first-person plural); o stavis par (you were about to; second-person plural); a stavin par (they were about to; third-person plural). Supplementary examples: i libris o stavi par comprâju (I was about to buy the books [the books, I was about to buy them]); il miluç al stave par mangjâlu (he was about to eat the apple [the apple, he was about to eat it]). Following is a translation of our sentence under review: Chest lu diseve (he was saying this [this, he was saying it]) par fâur capî (to make them understand [to make understand unto them]) di ce muart che al stave par murî (by what death he was about to die).

Sentence XV

No ’nd è nissun altri comandament plui grant di chescj. (Marc 12,31) No ’nd è is here read there is not; for notes related to this usage, the student ought to return to sentence XII. Nissun altri comandament is the Friulian for no other commandment: nissun (no, none, not one, not any); altri (other); il comandament (commandment). Given that comandament is a masculine noun, the masculine form nissun altri is employed therewith; the feminine form nissune altre is employed with a feminine noun, for instance: nissune altre lenghe (no other language). Nissun altri and nissune altre are employed only in the singular. Plui grant di is the Friulian for greater than: plui (more); grant (great); di (than). As for plui grant di chescj, this is the Friulian for greater than these, where chescj is the masculine plural of chest (this); see the notes at sentence XIV. Following are a number of supplementary examples of no ’nd è for consideration by the student: no ’nd è nissun altri fûr di lui (there is no other apart from him); no ’nd è nissun compagn di te (there is none like thee); no ’nd è nissun come lui su la tiere (there is none like him on the earth); no ’nd è nissun altri om plui devot di lui (there is no other man more devout than he); no ’nd è nissune altre situazion plui dure di cheste (there is no other situation more difficult than this). In the foregoing example, the adjective dûr means hard, difficult; it takes four forms: dûr (masculine singular); dûrs (masculine plural); dure (feminine singular); duris (feminine plural).

Sentence XVI

No tu sês lontan dal ream di Diu. (Marc 12,34) The present indicative of jessi (to be), also expressed as sei, is the following: jo o soi (I am; first-person singular); tu tu sês (thou art; second-person singular); lui al è (he is; masculine, third-person singular); jê e je (she is; feminine, third-person singular); nualtris o sin (we are; first-person plural); vualtris o sês (you are; second-person plural); lôr a son (they are; third-person plural). Take now lui al è as an example: lui is the tonic pronoun, whereas al is the atonic; the tonic pronouns (jo, tu, lui, jê, nualtris, vualtris, lôr) may be omitted, but the atonic pronouns (o, tu, al, e, o, o, a) are left to stand in affirmative statements, so that, for instance, Diu al è grant is the Friulian for God is great, where the subject Diu replaces the tonic pronoun lui. In the second-person singular, the tonic and atonic pronouns are both tu: the tonic pronoun is the first, and the atonic is the second, as is customary. Consider now the negations: jo no soi (I am not); tu no tu sês (thou art not); lui nol è (he is not); jê no je (she is not); nualtris no sin (we are not); vualtris no sês (you are not); lôr no son (they are not). To be noted with regard to the negations is this, that no forces the omission of the atonic pronoun, with exception to the second-person singular, where it is left to stand; and to the masculine, third-person singular, where it contracts with the atonic al to form nol. The tonic pronoun is customarily omitted, being employed primarily for contrast with other subjects (jo o soi content, ma lui al è avilît [I am happy, but he is sad]); in this way, the following are the usual forms to be encountered: o soi (I am); tu sês (thou art); al è (he is); e je (she is); o sin (we are); o sês (you are); a son (they are); and negated, these are: no soi (I am not); no tu sês (thou art not); nol è (he is not); no je (she is not); no sin (we are not); no sês (you are not); no son (they are not). The Friulian lontan di means far from, whereas the masculine noun ream is the Friulian for kingdom. Di (from) contracts with the masculine singular definite article il (the) to form dal (from the), so that lontan dal ream di Diu means far from the kingdom of God. The adjective lontan (far) takes four forms: lontan (masculine singular); lontans (masculine plural); lontane (feminine singular); lontanis (feminine plural).

Sentence XVII

Chel di vualtris che al è cence pecjât, che al tiri il prin clap cuintri di jê. (Zuan 8,7) Chel di vualtris is the Friulian for he amongst you (literally, that one of you). Chel takes four different forms: chel (that one; masculine singular); chei (those ones; masculine plural); chê (that one; feminine singular); chês (those ones; feminine plural). Were chel di vualtris to be pluralised, so would we obtain: chei di vualtris (they amongst you [those ones of you]). Were the utterance to be made with regard to female gender, so would we obtain: chê di vualtris (she amongst you [that one of you]); chês di vualtris (they amongst you [those ones of you]). Cence is the Friulian for without, whereas pecjât is a masculine noun meaning sin, wherefore cence pecjât is the Friulian for without sin. Chel di vualtris che al è cence pecjât: he amongst you who is without sin. Clap is a masculine noun meaning stone; il prin clap means the first stone. The adjective prin takes four forms: prin (masculine singular); prins (masculine plural); prime (feminine singular); primis (feminine plural). Examples: il prin pecjât (the first sin); i prins oms (the first men); la prime stele (the first star); lis primis peraulis (the first words). Tirâ is the Friulian for to cast, to throw. Consider: al tire – che al tiri (he casts – let him cast). Whereas al tire is the present indicative, che al tiri is the present subjunctive. More examples: al fevele – che al feveli (he speaks – let him speak); al cope – che al copi (he kills – let him kill); al puarte – che al puarti (he brings – let him bring); al pense – che al pensi (he thinks – let him think); al mangje – che al mangji (he eats – let him eat); al prove – che al provi (he tries – let him try); al torne – che al torni (he returns – let him return). Of the foregoing present subjunctive forms, the following variants are possible: che al tiredi; che al feveledi; che al copedi; che al puartedi; che al pensedi; che al mangjedi; che al provedi; che al tornedi. Cuintri is the Friulian for against, so that, for instance, the following can be said: cuintri di me (against me); cuintri di te (against thee); cuintri di lui (against him); cuintri di jê (against her); cuintri di nualtris; cuintri di nô (against us); cuintri di vualtris; cuintri di vô (against you); cuintri di lôr (against them). Che al tiri il prin clap cuintri di jê: let him cast the first stone against her.

Sentence XVIII

Alore Jesù al scomençà a dîur: «Stait atents che nissun no us imbroi». (Marc 13,5) Scomençâ is the Friulian for to begin, to start; it is here found in the masculine, third-person singular of the simple past: alore Jesù al scomençà (then Jesus began). This simple past usage is above all a written form; in colloquial conversation, he began would rather be said al à scomençât. Examples: al scomençà a domandâ – al à scomençât a domandâ (he began to ask); al scomençà a lavorâ – al à scomençât a lavorâ (he began to work); al scomençà a mangjâ – al à scomençât a mangjâ (he began to eat); al scomençà a dîur – al à scomençât a dîur (he began to say to them). Dîur (to say to them) is the contraction of (to say) and ur (to them). Stâ atent is the Friulian for to be mindful; as for stait atents, this is a second-person plural imperative meaning be you mindful. Atent (attentive, mindful) takes four different forms: atent (masculine singular); atents (masculine plural); atente (feminine singular); atentis (feminine plural). The verb stâ (to be, to dwell) takes such forms in the imperative: sta (be {thou}; second-person singular); stait (be {you}; second-person plural); stin (let us be; first-person plural). Consider the following: sta atent (be thou mindful; spoken to a male); sta atente (be thou mindful; spoken to a female); stait atents (be you mindful; spoken to males or mixed gender); stait atentis (be you mindful; spoken to females). Imbroiâ is the Friulian for to deceive. So does it conjugate in the present indicative: o imbroi (I deceive); tu imbrois (thou deceivest); al imbroie (he deceives); e imbroie (she deceives); o imbroìn (we deceive); o imbroiais (you deceive); a imbroin (they deceive). Consider the following: nissun nol imbroie (nobody deceives); nissun no us imbroie (nobody deceives you); stait atents che nissun no us imbroi (be you mindful that nobody deceive you). Whereas al imbroie is the present indicative, al imbroi is the present subjunctive, and this latter form is the one found in our sentence under review. It is the employment of stait atents che that is here forcing the use of the subjunctive. Consider more examples: al è – sta atent che al sedi (he is – be thou mindful that he be); al à – stait atents che al vedi (he has – be you mindful that he have); al ven – stin atents che al vegni (he comes – let us be mindful that he come). Of imbroiâ, following is the present subjunctive conjugation: che o imbroi (that I may deceive); che tu imbrois (that thou may deceive); chel al imbroi (that he may deceive); che e imbroi (that she may deceive); che o imbroìn (that we may deceive); che o imbroiais (that you may deceive); che a imbroin (that they may deceive). An alternative present subjunctive conjugation exists: che o imbroiedi; che tu imbroiedis; che al imbroiedi; che e imbroiedi; che o imbroiedin; che o imbroiedis; che a imbroiedin.

Sentence XIX

Che nol stedi a inrabiâsi il gno Signôr se o feveli pe ultime volte. (Gjenesi 18,32) Here we have an instance of the negated imperative of the masculine, third-person singular. Study the following: che nol stedi (let him not; masculine, third-person singular); che no stedi (let her not; feminine, third-person singular); che no stedin (let them not; masculine or feminine, third-person plural). Inrabiâsi is the Friulian for to become wroth, to get angry. Consider: che nol stedi (let him not); che nol stedi a inrabiâsi (let him not become wroth); che nol stedi a inrabiâsi il gno Signôr (let my Lord not become wroth). Supplementary examples: gno pari che nol stedi a sintîlu (let my father not hear it); che no stedi a preocupâsi mê mari (let my mother not worry); che nol stedi a inrabiâsi il re (let the king not become wroth); i fruts che no stedin a vaî (let the children not weep). Se o feveli is the Friulian for if I speak; the present indicative of fevelâ was presented at book I, lesson XII. Volte is a feminine noun meaning time. As for the adjective last, the Friulian is ultin, which takes four forms: ultin (masculine singular); ultins (masculine plural); ultime (feminine singular); ultimis (feminine plural). In this way, la ultime volte is the Friulian for the last time; pe ultime volte, on the other hand, means for the last time, where pe is the contraction of par (for) and the feminine singular definite article la (the). Of volte, the plural is voltis (times), so that, for instance, dôs voltis means twice, two times; trê voltis means thrice, three times; and tes ultimis setemanis si sin viodûts cinc voltis means in the last few weeks we have seen one another five times. Setemane is a feminine noun meaning week.

Sentence XX

Benedet chel che al ven tal non dal Signôr. (Matieu 21,9) Benedet is the Friulian for blessed; it takes four different forms, as is customary for an adjective: benedet (masculine singular); benedets (masculine plural); benedete (feminine singular); benedetis (feminine plural). The Friulian for he who is chel che; another instance of this is found at sentence III. Vignî (to come) is irregular; so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o ven (I come); tu vegnis (thou comest); al ven (he comes); e ven (she comes); o vignìn (we come); o vignîs (you come); a vegnin (they come). The interrogative of the all the foregoing is: vegnio? (do I come?); vegnistu? (dost thou come?); vegnial? (does he come?); vegnie? (does she come?); vignìn? (do we come?); vignîso? (do you come?); vegnino? (do they come?). Supplementary examples of the interrogative: dontri vegnistu?; d’indulà vegnistu?; di dulà vegnistu? (from where dost thou come?); parcè no vegnial a studiâ cun me? (why does he not come to study with me?); parcè no vignîso in Friûl? (why do you not come to Friûl?). The Friulian for name is the masculine noun non; for Lord, it is the masculine noun Signôr. Tal non dal Signôr, then, means in the name of the Lord, where tal (in the) is the contraction of in (in) and the masculine singular definite article il (the), and dal (of the) is the contraction of di (of) and the masculine singular definite article il (the). Of dal Signôr, a number of supplementary examples with new vocabulary: la glorie dal Signôr (the glory of the Lord); la peraule dal Signôr (the word of the Lord); la potence dal Signôr (the power of the Lord); il santuari dal Signôr (the sanctuary of the Lord); la strade dal Signôr (the way of the Lord); la leç dal Signôr (the law of the Lord); l’altâr dal Signôr (the altar of the Lord); la presince dal Signôr (the presence of the Lord).

Sentence XXI

Cemût sucedaraial dut chest, dal moment che jo no cognòs om? (Luche 1,34) Sucedi is the Friulian for to come to pass, to happen, to occur. It would be well for the student to learn these verb forms thereof: al sucêt (it comes to pass); al sucedeve (it was coming to pass); al sucedè (it came to pass); al sucedarà (it will come to pass); al sucedarès (it would come to pass); al è sucedût (it has come to pass); al jere sucedût (it had come to pass); al sarà sucedût (it will have come to pass); al sarès sucedût (it would have come to pass). In these words of Mary (or Marie, in Friulian), we find sucedaraial?, which is the interrogative form of the simple future al sucedarà. Of all the verb forms provided above, and in the same order, the interrogatives are: cemût sucedial? (how does it come to pass?); cemût sucedevial? (how was it coming to pass?); cemût sucederial? (how did it come to pass?); cemût sucedaraial? (how will it come to pass?); cemût sucedaressial? (how would it come to pass?); cemût isal sucedût? (how has it come to pass?); cemût jerial sucedût? (how had it come to pass?); cemût saraial sucedût? (how will it have come to pass?); cemût saressial sucedût? (how would it have come to pass?). Dut chest is the Friulian for all this. Cemût sucedaraial dut chest?, then, means how will all this come to pass? As for dal moment che, this is read given that. Cognossi is the Friulian for to know, to be acquainted with; so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o cognòs (I know); tu cognossis (thou knowest); al cognòs (he knows); e cognòs (she knows); o cognossìn (we know); o cognossês (you know); a cognossin (they know). Negated, these are: no cognòs; no tu cognossis; nol cognòs; no cognòs; no cognossìn; no cognossês; no cognossin. Of these negations, it will be noted that the first-person singular takes the same form as the feminine third-person singular (no cognòs), wherefore the inclusion in our sentence of the tonic pronoun jo (I) eliminates any doubt: (jo) no cognòs (I know not); (jê) no cognòs (she knows not). The masculine noun om means man. Dal moment che jo no cognòs om, then, means given that I know not man.

Sentence XXII

Marie e restà cun jê un trê mês; po e tornà cjase sô. (Luche 1,56) Restâ is the Friulian for to remain, to stay; it is found here in the simple past, which conjugates so: o restai (I remained); tu restaris (thou remainedest); al restà (he remained); e restà (she remained); o restarin (we remained); o restaris (you remained); a restarin (they remained). The simple past is literary and employed in the narrative portions of the Bible; in colloquial Friulian conversation, it is rather the recent past that is employed: o soi restât (I remained, I have remained; feminine: o soi restade); tu sês restât (thou remainedest, thou hast remained; feminine: tu sês restade); al è restât (he remained, he has remained); e je restade (she remained, she has remained); o sin restâts (we remained, we have remained; feminine: o sin restadis); o sês restâts (you remained, you have remained; feminine: o sês restadis); a son restâts (they remained, they have remained; feminine: a son restadis). Cun jê is the Friulian for with her; also to be learnt: cun me (with me); cun te (with thee); cun lui (with him); cun sè (with oneself); cun nualtris, cun nô (with us); cun vualtris, cun vô (with you); cun lôr (with them). Mês is a masculine noun meaning month, and its plural form is also mês; for instance, un mês means one month, and doi mês means two months. Now whereas trê mês means three months, the approximative un trê mês means some three months, about three months. More examples: un cinc chilometris (some five kilometres); un vincj agns indaûr (some twenty years ago); from these examples, the following vocabulary is to be learnt: cinc (five); un chilometri (a kilometre); vincj (twenty); un an (a year; plural: i agns); indaûr (ago). Marie e restà cun jê un trê mês: Mary remained with her some three months. Po is Friulian for then. As for tornâ, this means to return, to go back; so does it conjugate in the simple past: o tornai (I returned); tu tornaris (thou returnedest); al tornà (he returned); e tornà (she returned); o tornarin (we returned); o tornaris (you returned); a tornarin (they returned). In colloquial Friulian conversation, it is rather the recent past that is employed: o soi tornât (I returned, I have returned; feminine: o soi tornade); tu sês tornât (thou returnedest, thou hast returned; feminine: tu sês tornade); al è tornât (he returned, he has returned); e je tornade (she returned, she has returned); o sin tornâts (we returned, we have returned; feminine: o sin tornadis); o sês tornâts (you returned, you have returned; feminine: o sês tornadis); a son tornâts (they returned, they have returned; feminine: a son tornadis). Cjase is a feminine noun meaning house, home; as for cjase sô, this is an adverbial usage. Consider the following: o soi tornât cjase mê (I went home); tu sês tornât cjase tô (thou wentest home); al è tornât cjase sô (he went home); e je tornade cjase sô (she went home); o sin tornâts cjase nestre (we went home); o sês tornâts cjase vuestre (you went home); a son tornâts cjase lôr (they went home). It is possible to omit the possessive adjective: o soi tornât cjase (I went home); o sin tornâts cjase (we went home); o voi cjase (I am going home). Po e tornà cjase sô: then she returned home.

Sentence XXIII

Dute la citât si jere dade dongje denant de puarte. (Marc 1,33) The adjective dut (all) takes four forms: dut (masculine singular); ducj (masculine plural); dute (feminine singular); dutis (feminine plural). Examples: dut il gras (all the fat); dut il cuarp (all the body); ducj i sants (all the saints); ducj i forescj (all the foreigners); dute la citât (all the city); dute la tiere (all the earth); dutis lis peraulis (all the words); dutis lis robis (all the things). For information, the singular of the masculine plural forescj (foreigners, outsiders, strangers) is forest (foreigner, outsider, stranger), for instance il so paron al è un forest means his master is a foreigner, his boss is a foreigner. Study the following: dut il borc si è dât dongje (all the village has gathered together); ducj i borcs si son dâts dongje (all the villages have gathered together); dute la citât si è dade dongje (all the city has gathered together); dutis lis citâts si son dadis dongje (all the cities have gathered together). Now study the following: dut il borc si jere dât dongje (all the village had gathered together); ducj i borcs si jerin dâts dongje (all the villages had gathered together); dute la citât si jere dade dongje (all the city had gathered together); dutis lis citâts si jerin dadis dongje (all the cities had gathered together). The Friulian for door is the feminine noun puarte. Examples: la puarte de cjase e je sierade (the door of the house is closed); la puarte de glesie e je vierte (the door of the church is open). For information, sierât is the Friulian for closed, whereas viert is the Friulian for open; these adjectives take four forms: sierât, viert (masculine singular); sierâts, vierts (masculine plural); sierade, vierte (feminine singular); sieradis, viertis (feminine plural); Denant di means before, in front of. As for denant de puarte, this means before the door, in front of the door, where de (of the) is the contraction of di (of) and the feminine singular definite article la (the). Of denant di, further examples: denant dal mâr (before the sea, in front of the sea); denant dai poçs (before the wells, in front of the wells); denant de barcje (before the boat, in front of the boat); denant des monts (before the mountains, in front of the mountains).

Sentence XXIV

E se o saludais dome i vuestris fradis, ce fasêso di speciâl? (Matieu 5,47) Saludâ is the Friulian for to salute, to greet; so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o saludi (I salute); tu saludis (thou salutest); al salude (he salutes); e salude (she salutes); o saludìn (we salute); o saludais (you salute); a saludin (they salute). Se is the Friulian for if. As for dome, this means only; the variant form nome also exists. The Friulian for brother is the masculine noun fradi; the plural fradis may be read brothers or brethren. With nouns identifying family members (such as father [pari], mother [mari], brother [fradi], sister [sûr], uncle [barbe], aunt [agne]), the definite article is omitted before the possessive adjective; however, in the plural, the definite article reappears. Examples: (masculine singular) gno fradi (my brother); to fradi (thy brother); so fradi (his/her brother); nestri fradi (our brother); vuestri fradi (your brother); lôr fradi (their brother); (masculine plural) i miei fradis (my brothers); i tiei fradis (thy brothers); i siei fradis (his/her brothers); i nestris fradis (our brothers); i vuestris fradis (your brothers); i lôr fradis (their brothers); (feminine singular) mê sûr (my sister); tô sûr (thy sister); sô sûr (his/her sister); nestre sûr (our sister); vuestre sûr (your sister); lôr sûr (their sister); (feminine plural) lis mês sûrs (my sisters); lis tôs sûrs (thy sisters); lis sôs sûrs (his/her sisters); lis nestris sûrs (our sisters); lis vuestris sûrs (your sisters); lis lôr sûrs (their sisters). More examples yet: gno barbe (my uncle); i miei barbis (my uncles); sô agne (his/her aunt); lis sôs agnis (his/her aunts). The student will note this exception that, even in the singular, the definite article is employed before the possessive adjective in the matter of husband and wife: il gno om (my husband); la sô femine (his wife); i lôr oms (their husbands); lis lôr feminis (their wives), and so on. Fâ, the Friulian for to do, to make, conjugates so in the present indicative: o fâs (I do, I make); tu fasis (thou doest, thou makest); al fâs (he does, he makes); e fâs (she does, she makes); o fasìn (we do, we make); o fasês (you do, you make); a fasin (they do, they make). These take the following forms in the interrogative: fasio?; fasistu?; fasial?; fasie?; fasìno?; fasêso?; fasino? Examples: ce fasêso? (what do you?, what make you?); parcè lu fasial cussì? (why does he it so?, why makes he it so?); cemût fasio a imparâlu? (how am I to go about learning it? [how do I to learn it?]). Speciâl is the Friulian for special; it takes such forms: speciâl (masculine singular); speciâi (masculine plural); speciâl (feminine singular); speciâls (feminine plural). Our sentence under review, words of Christ, may be translated so from the Friulian: E se o saludais dome i vuestris fradis (and if you salute only your brethren), ce fasêso di speciâl? (wherein do you any special thing? [what do you of special?]).

Sentence XXV

Cuant che lu gafe, lu sdrondene di ca e di là e lui al bute fûr la bave, al cruste i dincj e al devente dut dûr. (Marc 9,18) A man brings his son to Jesus, that the lad be healed of a dumb and deaf spirit. The Friulian for spirit is the masculine noun spirt. For dumb, mute, the Friulian is mut, whereas for deaf, the Friulian is sort; these adjectives take four forms: mut, sort (masculine singular); muts, sorts (masculine plural); mute, sorde (feminine singular); mutis, sordis (feminine plural). Gafâ is the Friulian for to seize. Consider: il spirt al gafe so fi (the spirit seizes his son); il spirt lu gafe (the spirit seizes him); cuant che lu gafe (when it seizes him). Sdrondenâ is the Friulian for to toss; as for di ca e di là, this is read to and fro, hither and thither. Consider: il spirt al sdrondene (the spirit tosses); il spirt lu sdrondene (the spirit tosses him); lu sdrondene di ca e di là (it tosses him to and fro). Bave is a feminine noun meaning drool, saliva or, more poetically, foam. As for butâ fûr, this translates literally as to cast forth; the expression butâ fûr la bave (literally, to cast forth drool) may be read idiomatically in English as to foam at the mouth. The man says of his son: e lui al bute fûr la bave (and he foams at the mouth [and he casts forth drool]). He also says that his son grinds his teeth: al cruste i dincj; and that he becomes all stiff: al devente dut dûr. The Friulian for tooth is the masculine noun dint; this takes the plural form dincj (teeth). As for crustâ, this is read to grind; crustâ i dincj, then, means to grind one’s teeth. With regard to i dincj (literally, the teeth), it is often the case in Friulian that, especially in the matter of one’s body parts, the definite article takes the force of a possessive adjective. Deventâ is the Friulian for to become; dut, the Friulian for all, completely; and dûr, the Friulian for hard, stiff. The four forms of dûr were presented at sentence XV. So does deventâ conjugate in the present indicative: o deventi (I become); tu deventis (thou becomest); al devente (he becomes); e devente (she becomes); o deventìn (we become); o deventais (you become); a deventin (they become). On a final note, the student will note that the use of the tonic pronoun lui before al bute fûr marks the transition from the one subject (that of the spirit) to the other (that of the son).

Sentence XXVI

Chel che al à orelis, che al scolti. (Matieu 13,9) The Friulian for ear is the feminine noun orele; its plural form is orelis (ears). Chel che al à orelis: he who has ears. See sentence III for notes regarding chel che (he who). Scoltâ is the Friulian for to listen. Consider the following: al scolte (he listens); che al scolti (let him listen): the former is the present indicative, whereas the latter is the present subjunctive, here employed to form a third-person singular imperative; the notes at sentence XVII present many other examples. Of scoltâ, the present indicative conjuagtes so: o scolti (I listen); tu scoltis (thou listenest); al scolte (he listens); e scolte (she listens); o scoltìn (we listen); o scoltais (you listen); a scoltin (they listen). The present subjunctive of the same conjugates so: che o scolti (that I may listen); che tu scoltis (that thou may listen); che al scolti (that he may listen); che e scolti (that she may listen); che o scoltìn (that we may listen); che o scoltais (that you may listen); che a scoltin (that they may listen). The following forms are also possible in the present subjunctive: che o scoltedi; che tu scoltedis; che al scoltedi; che e scoltedi; che o scoltedin; che o scoltedis; che a scoltedin. Study these imperatives: scolte (listen {thou}); scoltait (listen {you}); scoltìn (let us listen); che al scolti (let him listen); che e scolti (let her listen); che a scoltin (let them listen). Now the negated forms of the imperative: no sta scoltâ (listen {thou} not); no stait a scoltâ (listen {you} not); no stin a scoltâ (let us not listen); che nol scolti (let him not listen); che no scolti (let her not listen); che no scoltin (let them not listen). Related vocabulary: la bocje (mouth; plural, lis bocjis); il dint (tooth; plural, i dincj); la lenghe (tongue; plural, lis lenghis); il lavri (lip; plural, i lavris); il nâs (nose; plural, i nâs); il voli (eye; plural, i vôi); la muse (face; plural, lis musis); il cjâf (head; plural, i cjâfs).

Sentence XXVII

La virtût di un arbul si ricognossile des sôs pomis. (Luche 6,44) Virtût is a feminine noun meaning virtue, and arbul is a masculine noun meaning tree. La virtût di un arbul is the Friulian for the virtue of a tree. Of arbul, the plural is arbui (trees). Examples: l’arbul al è muart (the tree is dead); i arbui a son muarts (the trees are dead). Muart (dead) takes four forms: muart (masculine singular); muarts (masculine plural); muarte (feminine singular); muartis (feminine plural). As for pome, this is a feminine noun meaning fruit, whose plural is pomis (fruits). Examples: cheste pome e je malmadure (this fruit is unripe); chestis pomis a son malmaduris (these fruits are unripe). Malmadûr (unripe) takes four forms: malmadûr (masculine singular); malmadûrs (masculine plural); malmadure (feminine singular); malmaduris (feminine plural). See sentence X for more examples of arbui and pomis. Ricognossi is Friulian for to recognise; so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o ricognòs (I recognise); tu ricognossis (thou recognisest); al ricognòs (he recognises); e ricognòs (she recognises); o ricognossìn (we recognise); o ricognossês (you recognise); a ricognossin (they recognise). As for si ricognossile, this means one recognises it (which is to say that one recognises the virtue of a tree). It is formed by the fusion of si ricognòs (one recognises) and the feminine singular direct object le (it), put for the feminine singular virtût. When suffixing le to ricognòs, an i must be inserted therebefore, and the final s must be doubled to maintain its [s] sound, lest it be pronounced [z] between the two vowels. Translated literally: la virtût di un arbul (the virtue of a tree) si ricognossile des sôs pomis (one recognises it from its fruits); this can be better put in English so: a tree’s virtue is recognised by its fruits. Consider these final examples: cjatâ (to find); si cjate (one finds); chest esempli si cjatilu tal libri (this example is found in the book [this example, one finds it in the book]); chescj esemplis si cjatiju tal libri (these examples are found in the book [these examples, one finds them in the book]); cheste esplicazion si cjatile tal libri (this explanation is found in the book [this explanation, one finds it in the book]); chestis esplicazions si cjatilis tal libri (these explanations are found in the book [these explanations, one finds them in the book]).

Sentence XXVIII

La tô fede ti à salvade; va in pâs. (Luche 7,50) Fede is a feminine noun meaning faith. Study the following: la mê fede (my faith); la tô fede (thy faith); la sô fede (his/her faith); la nestre fede (our faith); la vuestre fede (your faith); la lôr fede (their faith). Salvâ, the Friulian for to save, conjugates so in the recent past: o ài salvât (I have saved); tu âs salvât (thou hast saved); al à salvât (he/she/it has saved); o vin salvât (we have saved); o vês salvât (you have saved); a àn salvât (they have saved). Ti, as employed in our sentence under review, words of Jesus, is a direct object meaning thee; we understand at once that Jesus is speaking to a female by this, that the form salvade taken by the past participle is feminine singular, made to agree with the feminine singular ti. Consider the following: la tô fede ti à salvât (thy faith has saved thee; spoken to a male); la tô fede ti à salvade (thy faith has saved thee; spoken to a female). Salvât takes four forms, as is customary for a past participle: salvât (masculine singular); salvâts (masculine plural); salvade (feminine singular); salvadis (feminine plural). Consider moreover these examples, both plural: la vuestre fede us à salvâts (your faith has saved you; spoken to males, or to a pair or group wherein both genders are present); la vuestre fede us à salvadis (your faith has saved you; spoken to females). The Friulian for to go is lâ, whereas for peace it is the feminine noun pâs; the English to go in peace is therefore said in Friulian lâ in pâs. Of the irregular lâ, study the following imperatives: va (go {thou}); lait (go {you}); anìn (let us go); che al ledi (let him go); che e ledi (let her go); che a ledin (let them go). Negated, these are: no sta lâ (go {thou} not); no stait a lâ (go {you} not); no stin a lâ (let us not go); che nol ledi (let him not go); che no ledi (let her not go); che no ledin (let them not go).

Sentence XXIX

Jo o ài mangjât prime che tu rivassis tu. (Gjenesi 27,33) Two verbs here appear: mangjâ (to eat) and rivâ (to arrive). Mangjâ is employed in the recent past, which conjugates so: o ài mangjât (I ate, I have eaten); tu âs mangjât (thou atest, thou hast eaten); al à mangjât (he ate, he has eaten); e à mangjât (she ate, she has eaten); o vin mangjât (we ate, we have eaten); o vês mangjât (you ate, you have eaten); a àn mangjât (they ate, they have eaten). Prime che (before) requires the use of the subjunctive. Consider these examples: (i) jo o ài di mangjâ prime che al rivi lui (I have to eat before he arrives); (ii) jo o varai di mangjâ prime che al rivi lui (I shall have to eat before he arrives); (iii) jo o vevi di mangjâ prime che al rivàs lui (I had to eat before he arrived). In the first and second examples, the present subjunctive is employed after prime che, given that the action of having to eat is set in either present or future time. In the third example, the imperfect subjunctive is employed after prime che, given that the action of having to eat is set in past time. Our sentence under review can be translated so: jo o ài mangjât prime che tu rivassis tu (I ate before thou arrivedest). Rivâ in the present subjunctive conjugates so: che o rivi (that I may arrive); che tu rivis (that thou may arrive); che al rivi (that he may arrive); che e rivi (that she may arrive); che o rivìn (that we may arrive); che o rivais (that you may arrive); che a rivin (that they may arrive). An alternative present subjunctive conjugation is possible: che o rivedi; che tu rivedis; che al rivedi; che e rivedi; che o rivedin; che o rivedis; che a rivedin. Rivâ in the imperfect subjunctive conjugates so: che o rivàs (that I might arrive); che tu rivassis (that thou might arrive); che al rivàs (that he might arrive); che e rivàs (that she might arrive); che o rivassin (that we might arrive); che o rivassis (that you might arrive); che a rivassin (that they might arrive). For comparison and future reference, so does rivâ conjugate in the present indicative: o rivi (I arrive); tu rivis (thou arrivest); al rive (he arrives); e rive (she arrives); o rivìn (we arrive); o rivais (you arrive); a rivin (they arrive).

Sentence XXX

Salacor int sarà cincuante juscj in dute la citât. (Gjenesi 18,24) Abraham intercedes for Sodom, that it may be spared, if a few righteous men be found in it. Salacor means perhaps. As for int sarà, this is Friulian for there will be; it is the future equivalent of the present ind è (there is, there are), encountered at sentence XII. Both int and ind are contracted forms of indi: the contracted int is used when the following verb begins with a consonant; if the following verb begins with a vowel, the contraction takes the form ind. It is possible to employ the full indi in all cases, which is perceived to be a formal usage. Cincuante is the Friulian for fifty. Study the following: dîs (ten); vincj (twenty); trente (thirty); cuarante (forty); cincuante (fifty); sessante (sixty); setante (seventy); otante (eighty); novante (ninety); cent (hundred). Cuarante (forty) is also found under the alternative form corante. Just may used either adjectivally: just (just, righteous), or nominally: il just (just man, righteous man); i juscj (the just, the righteous). The four forms of the adjective just are: just (masculine singular); juscj (masculine plural); juste (feminine singular); justis (feminine plural). Adjectives forming their masculine plural like just include: trist (wicked; masculine plural, triscj); forest (foreign; masculine plural, forescj); sest (sixth; masculine plural, sescj); chest (this; masculine plural, chescj). Masculine nouns forming their plural in the same way include: il trist (wicked man; plural, i triscj); il forest (foreigner; plural, i forescj); il turist (tourist; plural, i turiscj); il fust (trunk {of tree}; plural, i fuscj). Citât is a feminine noun meaning city; in dute la citât, then, means in all the city. See sentence XXIII for notes regarding dut (all). Our sentence under review may be translated so from the Friulian: perhaps there will be fifty righteous in all the city.

Sentence XXXI

I pastôrs a àn passonât sè ma lis mês pioris no lis àn passonadis. (Ezechiel 34,8) The Friulian for shepherd is the masculine noun pastôr. Passonâ is read to feed, to graze; it is customarily employed to refer to leading animals to pasture. The Friulian for the collective sheep is lis pioris; in the singular, une piore refers to a ewe. In our sentence, we encounter sè, meaning himself, herself, itself, themselves. I pastôrs a àn passonât sè: the shepherds have fed themselves. Study the following: lis mês pioris (my sheep); lis tôs pioris (thy sheep); lis sôs pioris (his/her sheep); lis nestris pioris (our sheep); lis vuestris pioris (your sheep); lis lôr pioris (their sheep). The student may wish to compare all the foregoing with a masculine plural noun: i miei trops (my flocks); i tiei trops (thy flocks); i siei trops (his/her flocks); i nestris trops (our flocks); i vuestris trops (your flocks); i lôr trops (their flocks). Of note is this, that trop is the Friulian for both flock and how many. In the latter sense, trop takes four forms: trop (masculine singular); trops (masculine plural); trope (feminine singular); tropis (feminine plural). The masculine plural trops in the sense of how many is pronounced trôs, whereas the plural trops in the sense of flocks is pronounced as written, with the p sounded. Examples of trop in the sense of how many include: trop zucar àio di zontâ? (how much sugar have I to add?); trops agns âstu? (how old art thou? [how many years hast thou?]); trope vore varaio di fâ? (how much work shall I have to do?); tropis voltis varaio di fâlu? (how many times shall I have to do it?). Now, as to lis mês pioris no lis àn passonadis, this translates, after the manner of the Friulian, as: my sheep, they have not fed them. Consider such examples, taking note of the change of direct object pronoun (lu, ju, le, lis) and the modification of past participle (passonât, passonâts, passonade, passonadis): il gno trop no lu àn passonât (my flock, they have not fed it); i miei trops no ju àn passonâts (my flocks, they have not fed them); chê bestie no le àn passonade (that animal, they have not fed it); chês bestiis no lis àn passonadis (those animals, they have not fed them).

Sentence XXXII

Chest al è sucedût par che si colmàs ce che al veve nunziât il profete. (Matieu 21,4) Chest al è sucedût is the Friulian not only for this has come to pass (or more formally this is come to pass), but also this came to pass; this latter reading is the appropriate one in the context of this sentence. Other possible contextual readings include: this took place, this occurred, this happened. See sentence XXI for additional notes related to sucedi. Par che is the Friulian for {in order} that; this usage must be followed by the subjunctive: given that chest al è sucedût sets our sentence in past time, par che must be followed by the imperfect subjunctive: si colmàs. Colmâsi is a reflexive usage meaning to be fulfilled; it would be well for the student to learn such verb forms thereof: si colme (it is being fulfilled); si colmave (it was being fulfilled); si colmà (it was fulfilled); si colmarà (it will be fulfilled); si colmarès (it would be fulfilled); si è colmât (it has been fulfilled); si jere colmât (it had been fulfilled); si sarà colmât (it will be fulfilled); si sarès colmât (it would have been fulfilled); che si colmi, che si colmedi (that it may be fulfilled); che si colmàs (that it might be fulfilled). Consider the difference between these two utterances: chest al sucêt par che si colmi (this comes to pass that it may be fulfilled); chest al è sucedût par che si colmàs (this came to pass that it might be fulfilled). Ce che means that which, what. Nunziâ is the Friulian for to announce, so that al veve nunziât means he had announced. Profete is a masculine noun meaning prophet. So may our sentence under review be translated: Chest al è sucedût (this came to pass) par che si colmàs (that it might be fulfilled) ce che al veve nunziât il profete (that which the prophet had announced).

Sentence XXXIII

E chei chi si ’nt laran tal cjastic eterni, i juscj invezit a la vite eterne. (Matieu 25,46) Chei chi (literally, ‘those here’) is read these {ones}; it used to mark opposition with some other group of people or things. Other vocabulary to be learnt: lâsint (to go away, to go/head off, to leave, to depart); il cjastic (punishment); eterni (eternal); il just (just man, righteous man); i juscj (the just, the righteous); invezit (whereas, rather); la vite (life). Of eterni, the four forms are: eterni (masculine singular); eternis (masculine plural); eterne (feminine singular); eternis (feminine plural). Now, as to lâsint, the verb portion thereof conjugates in exactly the same manner as (to go); the student need only be additionally mindful of this, that the correct reflexive pronoun be employed, as well as the correct contraction of indi (which is to say, either ’nt or ’nd). Lâsint may take various readings in English (some common ones were provided above in the vocabulary list), but for the sake of simplicity, only the reading to go away will be employed in the following conjugations: (present indicative) mi ’nt voi (I go away); tu ti ’nt vâs (thou goest away); si ’nt va (he/she/it goes away); si ’nt lin (we go away); si ’nt lais (you go away); si ’nt van (they go away); (imperfect) mi ’nt levi (I was going away); tu ti ’nt levis (thou wast going away); si ’nt leve (he/she/it was going away); si ’nt levin (we were going away); si ’nt levis (you were going away); si ’nt levin (they were going away); (simple past) mi ’nt lei (I went away); tu ti ’nt leris (thou wentest away); si ’nt lè (he/she/it went away); si ’nt lerin (we went away); si ’nt leris (you went away); si ’nt lerin (they went away); (simple future) mi ’nt larai (I shall go away); tu ti ’nt larâs (thou wilt go away); si ’nt larà (he/she/it will go away); si ’nt larìn (we shall go away); si ’nt larês (you will go away); si ’nt laran (they will go away); (present conditional) mi ’nt larès (I should go away); tu ti ’nt laressis (thou wouldest go away); si ’nt larès (he/she/it would go away); si ’nt laressin (we should go away); si ’nt laressis (you would go away); si ’nt laressin (they would go away); (present subjunctive) che mi ’nt ledi (that I may go away); che ti ’nt ledi (that thou may go away); che si ’nt ledi (that he/she/it may go away); che si ’nt ledin (that we may go away); che si ’nt ledis (that you may go away); che si ’nt ledin (that they may go away); (imperfect subjunctive) che mi ’nt les (that I might go away); che ti ’nt lessis (that thou might go away); che si ’nt les (that he/she/it might go away); che si ’nt lessin (that we might go away); che si ’nt lessis (that you might go away); che si ’nt lessin (that they might go away); (recent past) mi ’nt soi lât/lade (I have gone away); tu ti ’nt sês lât/lade (thou hast gone away); si ’nd è lât/lade (he/she has gone away); si ’nt sin lâts/ladis (we have gone away); si ’nt sês lâts/ladis (you have gone away); si ’nt son lâts/ladis (they have gone away). By replacing the auxiliaries of the recent past (soi, sês, è, sin, sês, son) with jeri, jeris, jere, jerin, jeris, jerin, the Friulian equivalent of the past perfect is obtained (for example, si ’nd jere lât [he had gone away]); whereas by replacing them with sarai, sarâs, sarà, sarìn, sarês, saran, obtained is the Friulian equivalent of the future perfect (for example, si ’nt sarà lât [he will have gone away]). Found in the Bible are these imperatives: vatint (go {thou} away); laitsint (go {you} away). Our sentence under review may be so translated: E chei chi si ’nt laran (and these will go away) tal cjastic eterni (into eternal punishment), i juscj invezit (whereas the righteous) a la vite eterne (unto eternal life).

Sentence XXXIV

La int cui disie che jo o sedi? (Marc 8,27) The Friulian for people is the feminine singular noun int; it takes a verb in the feminine of the third-person singular, which is to say that it behaves like the Friulian equivalent of she, not they. La int, depending on the context wherein it is used, can take either the reading the people or simply people. Examples: la int e je ({the} people are); la int e à ({the} people have); la int e dîs ({the} people say); la int e vûl ({the} people want); o cjali la int che e passe (I am watching the people who are passing by). La int as used in this question, words of Jesus, takes the reading people (rather than the people), for Jesus here asks about people in general. The present indicative conjugation of (to say) was presented at sentence VIII. Consider examples: e dîs (she says); disie? (says she?); ce disie? (what says she?); cui disie? (whom says she?); parcè disie? (why says she?); cemût disie? (how says she?). Cui is the Friulian for both who and whom; our sentence calls for the English reading whom. The student will recognise che jo o sedi as being the first-person singular, present subjunctive of jessi (to be); see book I, lesson XLV. This question put by Jesus employs the Friulian subjunctive for this reason, that speculation in involved; the subjunctive may here be avoided in the English, with the question taking such translation: whom say people that I am?; however, if we were to carry over the Friulian use of the subjunctive into the English, then: whom say people that I be? (or whom say people that I may be?). More examples of the sort: ma vualtris cui disêso che jo o sedi? (but you, whom say you that I am?); e chel om cui disial che jo o sedi? (and whom says that man that I am?).

Sentence XXXV

Ma lui ur intimà di no fevelâ sul so cont cun nissun. (Marc 8,30) Intimâ is the Friulian for to intimate, so that ma lui ur intimà translates as but he intimated to them. Ur is an indirect object pronoun meaning to them. Consider all the following: lui mi intimà (he intimated to me); lui ti intimà (he intimated to thee); lui i intimà (he intimated to him/her); lui nus intimà (he intimated to us); lui us intimà (he intimated to you); lui ur intimà (he intimated to them). The simple past of intimâ, employed in our sentence under review, conjugates thus: o intimai (I intimated); tu intimaris (thou intimatedest); al intimà (he intimated); e intimà (she intimated); o intimarin (we intimated); o intimaris (you intimated); a intimarin (they intimated). Fevelâ is the Friulian for to speak; no fevelâ, then, means not to speak. As for sul so cont, this translates as on his account, the meaning whereof is about him, with regard to him. Cont is a masculine noun meaning account; il so cont means his account. Sul is the contraction of su (on) and the masculine singular definite article il, so that su + il so cont = sul so cont. Cun nissun means with no one, not with anyone. Translated from the Friulian: Ma lui ur intimà (but he intimated to them) di no fevelâ sul so cont cun nissun (not to speak on his account with anyone). Of cun nissun, a number of supplementary examples may be given: no ài fevelât cun nissun (I have not spoken with anyone); no fevelin mai cun nissun (they never speak with anyone); no fasarai cheste vore cun nissun (I shall not do this work with anyone).

Sentence XXXVI

No isal propit par chest che o sês fûr di strade; parcè che no cognossês ni lis Scrituris ni la potence di Diu? (Marc 12,24) To be fûr di strade (literally, off the way) is to be gone astray; strade is a feminine noun meaning way, street. Propit is read squarely, precisely. As for par chest, this translates literally as for this, the meaning whereof is for this reason. Jesus asks: no isal propit par chest che o sês fûr di strade (is it not squarely for this that you are gone astray). No isal is, of course, the interrogative of nol è (it is not), this latter being the negation of al è (it is). Consider the following: al è par chest (it is for this); nol è par chest (it is not for this); isal par chest? (is it for this?); no isal par chest? (is it not for this?). Cognossi is the Friulian for to know, in the sense of to be acquainted with, to be familiar with; its present indicative conjugation was presented at sentence XI. The feminine noun scripture is the Friulian for scripture, writing. Potence is also a feminine noun; it means power. The second part of the question of Jesus translates so: parcè che no cognossês ni lis Scrituris ni la potence di Diu? (because you know neither the Scriptures nor the power of God?). The student will note the use of no… ni… ni…, meaning neither… nor; supplementary examples thereof: no vuelin ni lei ni scrivi (they want neither to read nor to write); no ài ni fan ni sêt (I am neither hungry nor thirsty [I have neither hunger nor thirst]); no àn ni i bêçs ni i lavoradôrs (they have neither the money nor the workers).

Sentence XXXVII

Il savi al à il cûr a la sô diestre, il stupit a la sô çampe. (Qoelet 10,2) The masculine noun savi is the Friulian for wise man, whereas the masculine noun stupit is the Friulian for fool. Examples: la bocje dal savi (the mouth of the wise man); i lavris dal stupit (the lips of the fool). Savi and stupit can also be employed as adjectives, which take four forms: savi, stupit (masculine singular); savis, stupits (masculine plural); savie, stupide (feminine singular); saviis, stupidis (feminine plural). Examples: un zûc stupit (a foolish game, a stupid game); une idee stupide (a foolish idea, a stupid idea); peraulis saviis (wise words). For heart, the Friulian is the masculine noun cûr. As for hand, the Friulian is the feminine noun man; however, the right hand and the left hand are identified specifically by the names la diestre and la çampe, respectively. These nouns are drawn from the adjectives diestri (right) and çamp (left), which take four forms: diestri, çamp (masculine singular); diestris, çamps (masculine plural); diestre, çampe (feminine singular); diestris, çampis (feminine plural). The name of the right hand and the left hand take a feminine form in Friulian for this reason, that the feminine noun man (hand) is understood: la {man} diestre (the right {hand}); la {man} çampe (the left {hand}). It is moreover possible to employ the full la man diestre and la man çampe, without omitting man. This sentence can be translated thus: Il savi al à il cûr a la sô diestre (the wise man has his heart at his right hand), il stupit a la sô çampe (the fool at his left). The student will note that the Friulian, in point of fact, employs il cûr (the heart), rather than il so cûr (his heart); however, the Friulian definite article is often seen to bear the force of a possessive adjective, especially in the matter of body parts, and its present omission is also stylistically preferable, given that so/sô would otherwise thrice appear in the sentence. On a final note, the adjective diestri knows the following variants in Friulian: dret and gjestri, which, of course, take four forms: dret, gjestri (masculine singular); drets, gjestris (masculine plural); drete, gjestre (feminine singular); dretis, gjestris (feminine plural). It is for this reason that the right hand, in addition to la diestre, may also be identified by the following names: la drete or la gjestre.

Sentence XXXVIII

Fi, se tu i vuelis ben a di un compagn, prime metilu a lis provis e podopo cjolital par amì (Sapience di Achikar 17) The Friulian for son and daughter is, respectively, il fi and la fie; the plural forms are i fîs (sons) and lis fiis (daughters). Volê ben means to love; the student will note that this expression takes an indirect object; for instance, the Friulian for I love Jacob is jo i vuei ben a Jacop, where i means unto him and a Jacop means unto Jacob. The present indicative of volê was presented at sentence XIII. The masculine noun compagn is the Friulian for companion. The first half of this sentence is understood so: fi, se tu i vuelis ben a di un compagn (son, if thou love a companion). It will be noted that di is inserted between a and un by reason of euphony; to be clear, a di un compagn means unto a companion, this indirect usage being employed for the reason stated above, that volê ben takes an indirect object (to love someone: volêi ben a di un). Of a di un, a few more examples: a di un ciert pont (to a certain point); di une lenghe a di une altre (from one language to another); chel om no i fasarès mâl a di une moscje (that man would not hurt a fly). In the second half of the sentence, we find the expression meti a lis provis, meaning to put to the proof; however, it will be noted that the Friulian literally employs the plural proofs, given that provis is the plural of the feminine noun prove (proof, trial, test). Of meti (to put), the second-person singular imperative is met; the Friulian for put {thou} him is therefore metilu, where an i is inserted between met (put {thou}) and lu (him) by reason of euphony. Of meti, learn these imperatives: met (put {thou}; second-person singular); metêt (put {you}; second-person plural); metìn (let us put; first-person plural). On either side of metilu a lis provis are found prime and podopo, which are taken as first and then, respectively. The Friulian for friend is un amì (plural, i amîs); the feminine is une amie (plural, lis amiis). As for cjoli, this is the Friulian for to take; the reflexive cjolisi, then, means to take unto oneself. In this way, cjolisi par amì means to take unto oneself for friend (or to take unto oneself as a friend). In our sentence, we encounter cjolital par amì, which employs the second-person singular imperative: take him unto thyself for friend. Cjolital is the contraction of cjol (take {thou}) + ti (unto thyself) + lu (him), with an i inserted between cjol and tal (= ti + lu) by reason of euphony. Of cjoli, learn these imperatives: cjol (take {thou}; second-person singular); cjolêt (take {you}; second-person plural); cjolìn (let us take; first-person plural). The second half of this sentence is understood so: prime metilu a lis provis e podopo cjolital par amì (first put him to the proof and then take him unto thyself for friend).

Sentence XXXIX

Ind è che a tasin parcè che a àn sintiment. (Fi di Sirac 20,1) Ind è che is read there are those who. For more notes related to ind è, see sentence XII. Tasê is the Friulian for to keep quiet; so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o tâs (I keep quiet); tu tasis (thou keepest quiet); al tâs (he keeps quiet); e tâs (she keeps quiet); o tasìn (we keep quiet); o tasês (you keep quiet); a tasin (they keep quiet). Vê sintiment is the Friulian for to have/possess wisdom, where sintiment (wisdom) is a masculine noun. A àn sintiment, then, means they possess wisdom. Ind è che a tasin parcè che a àn sintiment: there are those who keep quiet because they possess wisdom. Of sintiment, a number of supplementary examples: un om plen di sintiment (a man full of wisdom); un om cence sintiment (a man without wisdom); fevelâ cun grant sintiment (to speak with great wisdom); disserni cun sintiment (to discern with wisdom); rispuindi cun sintiment (to respond with wisdom). Additional examples of ind è che may also be given: ind è che a cirin glorie e a cjatin umiliazion (there are those who seek glory and find humiliation); ind è che a comprin tante robe cul pôc, però le pain siet voltis (there are those who buy much for little but pay for it sevenfold). From the two foregoing examples, the following vocabulary ought to be learnt: cirî (to seek, to look for); la glorie (glory); cjatâ (to find); la umiliazion (humiliation); comprâ tante robe (to buy much); comprâ cul pôc (to buy for little); però (but); paiâ (to pay {for}); siet (seven); la volte (time); siet voltis (seven times, sevenfold). Le pain means they pay for it, where the feminine singular le here agrees in gender and number with the feminine singular tante robe (literally, much matter, much stuff). Of paiâ, study the present indicative: o pai (I pay); tu pais (thou payest); al paie (he pays); e paie (she pays); o paìn (we pay); o paiais (you pay); a pain (they pay). Tant (much, many) takes four different forms: tant (masculine singular); tancj (masculine plural); tante (feminine singular); tantis (feminine plural). Examples: tant timp (much time); tancj miluçs (many apples); tante fede in Diu (much faith in God); tantis voltis (many times).

Sentence XL

Rancôr e rabie a son dôs robatis, ma il pecjadôr si sint fuart li. (Fi di Sirac 27,30) The masculine noun rancôr is the Friulian for rancour, resentment, whereas the feminine noun rabie is the Friulian for wrath, anger. Now, whereas the feminine noun robe means thing, the feminine noun robate means wicked thing. The -at (masculine) and -ate (feminine) suffixes convey wickedness, badness: robe – robate (thing – wicked thing); frut – frutat (boy – naughty boy); frute – frutate (girl – naughty girl); om – omenat (man – boor). In the narration of Noah and the flood, we read that man had nothing but evil thoughts: al masanave dome robatis (he mulled only wicked things), where masanâ means to mull, to turn over in one’s mind, to ruminate. For two, Friulian has both a masculine and feminine form: doi (masculine) and dôs (feminine). Given that robatis is a feminine noun, the Friulian for two wicked things is dôs robatis. Other examples: doi cjastics (two punishments); doi stupits (two fools); dôs vueris (two wars); dôs leçs (two laws). Rancôr e rabie a son dôs robatis: rancour and wrath are two wicked things. In the second half of the sentence, such vocabulary appears: ma (but); il pecjadôr (sinner); sintîsi (to feel); fuart (strong); li (there). Of sintîsi, the present indicative conjugates so: mi sint (I feel); ti sintis (thou feelest); si sint (he/she/it feels); si sintìn (we feel); si sintîs (you feel); si sintin (they feel). Ma il pecjadôr si sint fuart li: but the sinner feels strong there. Of sintîsi, supplementary examples: mi sint strac (I feel tired; male); mi sint strache (I feel tired; female); si sint obleât a fâlu (he feels obligated to do it); si sint obleade a tornâ (she feels obligated to return); si sint avilît (he feels sad); si sint avilide (she feels sad).

Sentence XLI

Meninusai fûr, che o vin voe di cognossiju. (Gjenesi 19,5) In the narration of Sodom, Lot extends his hospitality to two strangers; the men of the city then come to Lot and pronounce these words to him. Menâ is the Friulian for to lead, whereas menâ fûr means to lead forth. Study these imperatives: mene (lead {thou}; second-person singular); menait (lead {you}; second-person plural); menìn (let us lead; first-person plural). In the words of the Sodomites, we encounter the second-person singular imperative meninusai, which is the contraction of mene (lead {thou}) + nus (unto us) + ju (them; masculine plural), which is to say that meninusai fûr means lead them forth unto us. When nusai (= nus + ju) is suffixed to the second-person singular imperative mene, the final e of mene must change to i. Consider the following examples for study purposes, all second-person singular imperatives: meninusal fûr (lead him forth unto us); meninusai fûr (lead them [males or both genders] forth unto us); meninuse fûr (lead her forth unto us); meninuses fûr (lead them [females] forth unto us). Were the foregoing examples to be converted into second-person plural imperatives, they would instead take such forms: menaitnusal fûr; menaitnusai fûr; menaitnuse fûr; menaitnuses fûr. More examples yet, all second-person singular: menimal fûr (lead him forth unto me); menimai fûr (lead them [males or both genders] forth unto me); menime fûr (lead her forth unto me); menimes fûr (lead them [females] forth unto me). Vê voie di (alternative form vê voe di) means to feel like, to be keen, to want. Cognossi is the Friulian for to know; cognossiju, then, means to know them, where ju here refers to the strangers whom Lot has taken in. In this context, cognossi is employed in the sense of engaging in carnal relations, which is to say, to know carnally. As for che, it takes in this sentence the sense of for, because. Meninusai fûr, che o vin voe di cognossiju: lead them forth unto us, for we want to know them.

Sentence XLII

Al è un don di Diu chel di spiegâ i siums, ma contaitmal istès. (Gjenesi 40,8) The chief butler and the chief baker of the king of Egypt have a dream, and Joseph by these words tells them to recount it to him. Un don di Diu is the Friulian for a gift of God. Spiegâ means to explain; however, in this context of dreams, we can take it as meaning to interpret. The Friulian for dream is the masculine noun sium. Al è un don di Diu chel di spiegâ i siums: it is a gift of God that of interpreting dreams. Contâ is the Friulian for to recount, to relate, to tell; study these imperative forms thereof: conte (recount {thou}; second-person singular); contait (recount {you}; second-person plural); contìn (let us recount; first-person plural). In the words of Joseph, we find contaitmal, which is the contraction of the second-person plural imperative contait (recount {you}) + mi (unto me) + lu (it), where the masculine singular lu is put for the masculine singular sium (before these words of Joseph, the chief butler and the chief baker had just said to him: o vin fat un sium [we have had a dream; literally, we have made a dream]). Contaitmal, then, is a second-person plural imperative meaning recount it to me, relate it to me. Istès means all the same, anyhow. Ma contaitmal istès: but recount it to me all the same. Now, given that Joseph speaks these words to more than one person, the second-person plural imperative is used; however, if he had spoken them to just the one of the two men, recourse to the second-person singular imperative would have instead been made: conte + mi + lu, which produces contimal, where the final e of the second-person singular conte must change to i before the suffixing of mal (= mi + lu). Consider these pairs: contimal – contaitmal (recount {thou} it to me – recount {you} it to me); mostrimal – mostraitmal (show {thou} it to me – show {you} it to me); passimal – passaitmal (pass {thou} it to me – pass {you} it to me); mandimal – mandaitmal (send {thou} it to me – send {you} it to me); puartimal – puartaitmal (bring {thou} it to me – bring {you} it to me). Vocabulary: mostrâ (to show); passâ (to pass); mandâ (to send); puartâ (to bring).

Sentence XLIII

Cjolêt une zumiele di cjalin di fornâs e Mosè che lu buti par aiar in presince dal faraon. (Esodo 9,8) The Lord speaks these words to Moses and Aaron. Cjoli is Friulian for to take; study the following imperatives: cjol (take {thou}; second-person singular); cjolêt (take {you}; second-person plural); cjolìn (let us take; first-person plural). Also: che al cjoli/cjoledi (let him take); che e cjoli/cjoledi (let her take); che a cjolin/cjoledin (let them take). In the words of the Lord, we find the second-person plural cjolêt, for it is both Moses and Aaron who are addressed. The feminine noun zumiele means handful; the masculine noun cjalin means soot; and the feminine noun fornâs means furnace. Cjolêt une zumiele di cjalin di fornâs: take a handful of furnace soot. Butâ is the Friulian for to cast; study the following imperatives: bute (cast {thou}; second-person singular); butait (cast {you}; second-person plural); butìn (let us cast; first-person plural). Also: che al buti/butedi (let him cast); che e buti/butedi (let her cast); che a butin/butedin (let them cast). Aiar is a masculine noun meaning air; as for par aiar, this means into the air. Presince is a feminine noun meaning presence; faraon is a masculine noun meaning pharaoh. E Mose che lu buti par aiar in presince dal faraon: and let Moses cast it into the air in Pharaoh’s presence. Study the following: Mosè al bute – Mosè lu bute – Mosè che lu buti/butedi (Moses casts – Moses casts it – let Moses cast it); Mosè al fevele – Mosè lu fevele – Mosè che lu feveli/feveledi (Moses speaks – Moses speaks it – let Moses speak it); Mosè al alce – Mosè lu alce – Mosè che lu alci/alcedi (Moses lifts – Moses lifts it – let Moses lift it). For the student’s information and reference, so does cjoli conjugate in the present indicative: o cjol (I take); tu cjolis (thou takest); al cjol (he takes); e cjol (she takes); o cjolìn (we take); o cjolês (you take); a cjolin (they take). The student will note that cjoli is not the only verb in Friulian whose meaning is to take; another is cjapâ.

Sentence XLIV

Josef al fasè un sium e ur al contà ai siei fradis. (Gjenesi 37,5) Fâ un sium (literally, to make a dream) is the Friulian for to have a dream. Of Joseph, we read: Josef al fasè un sium (Joseph had a dream). This can also be expressed using the recent past, which is the preferred tense for colloquial conversation: Josef al à fat un sium. Other examples using the recent past: o ài fat un sium (I had a dream, I have had a dream); la gnot passade o ài fat un brut sium (last night I had a bad dream, last night I had a nightmare); scolte ce sium che o ài fat (listen {thou} to the dream I have had); scoltait ce sium che o ài fat (listen {you} to the dream I have had). Contâ is the Friulian for to recount, to relate, to tell; in the simple past, it takes such conjugation: o contai (I recounted); tu contaris (thou recountedest); al contà (he recounted); e contà (she recounted); o contarin (we recounted); o contaris (you recounted); a contarin (they recounted). That which Joseph recounted was his dream: al contà il sium (he recounted the dream) > lu contà (he recounted it). He recounted it to his brothers: ur contà il sium ai siei fradis (he recounted the dream to his brothers) > ur al contà ai siei fradis (he recounted it to his brothers). Ur al is the form taken by ur (unto them) + lu (it; masculine singular). Learn these forms: ur al (= ur + masculine singular lu); ur ai (= ur + masculine plural ju); ur e (= ur + feminine singular le); ur es (= ur + feminine plural lis). Consider the following supplementary examples: il probleme, ur al contarai ai oms (the problem, I shall recount it to the men); i problemis, ur ai contarai ai oms (the problems, I shall recount them to the men); la situazion, ur e contarai ai oms (the situation, I shall recount it to the men); lis obiezions, ur es contarai ai oms (the objections, I shall recount them to the men). Of note is that the Friulian for his/her brothers is i siei fradis; however, in the singular, the definite article is omitted: so fradi (his/her brother). Compare: ur al contarà ai siei fradis (he/she will recount it to his/her brothers); jal contarà a so fradi (he/she will recount it to his/her brother).

Further sentences to come. Last update: 22 IX 2022.